Type and Extent of Exercise and Its Significance in the Management on Type II Diabetes Melitus

Published: 2021-06-27
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University of Richmond
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The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact that exercise has on the metabolic parameters in participants who were suffering from type II diabetes mellitus who had not registered any improvements on their cardio-respiratory fitness following training. During this research, participant with type II diabetes mellitus were studied and the benefits they obtained from aerobic training. Another group of individuals were subjected to resistance training and acted as the control group.


202 participants were involved in the study, with 63% of them being women. 57% of them registered some improvements while 36.6% of them did register any changes. Bother the individuals who responded to fitness and those who did not had significant improvements in hemoglobin, measures of adiposity and waist circumference also had significant changes. Very little difference was observed in the alterations in the metabolic parameters among those who responded and those who didnt. The control group did not have any meaningful changes in terms of their metabolic parameters.

Critical Appraisal

To determine the validity of the clinical trials, the study design was critically evaluated. The study had two groups, the study group and the control group. Such forms of studies are often very effective since direct comparisons can be drawn at a glance as a conclusion arrived at form observation of the two groups. The study is validated by randomization of the subjects in to the experimental and control groups. The data collection process was also simplified as it was directly through observation and experimental analysis of the various parameters. In certain studies, the subjects are blinded in a way that they are not aware of the nature of treatment they are being subjected in to; however, in this study, no blinding was necessary since the desired outcomes had direct impacts on the participants general life. The study design endured that both the experimental and control groups has the same prognostic factors. The prognostic factors considered included age, commodities of the subjects and the stage if disease. It is important to make sure that the participants share similar prognostic factors so as to avoid bias that results from differences in certain parameters. In a case where the two groups do not share similarities, it is very hard to fairly compare them at the end of the study.

The study also utilized stratification to eliminate bias and it was performed using a randomization system generated from computers. The stratification process ensured that there is early recognition of any prognostic factors that may have influence in the final outcome of the study. The study presented the results in a way that is relatively simple to interpret. The result obtained shows some evidence and it has a lot of relevance. From the evaluation of the study, the results show that in a majority of the experimental participants, exercise had positive effects in their disease process while in the control group, there was no significant impact. These observations indicate that exercise has major impacts on the prognosis of type II diabetes mellitus. Such a study is a very good evidence based study that can be used with relevance to the topic of interest.

Article 2

Thent, Z. C., Das, S., & Henry, L. J. (2013). Role of Exercise in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus: the Global Scenario. Cardiovascular Journal , 8-11.

The aim of the study was to put focus on the type and extent of exercise and its significance in the management on type II diabetes melitus so as to offer education to people in the developing countries like in Asian countries. The study used a randomised controlled study design in which most of the anaysis of aerobic excesise revealed beneficail effects to type II diabetes mellitus. The study brough together a series of previously done work, analsed them and acme uo with meaningful conclusion on the impacts of excerse on diabetes. The study included all publications that foucsed on adult humans and exercise. Also included were the case-control studies, clinical cohort studies, randomised cross pilot studies, randomised case controlled trials and pre-post design studies.


Most of the programmes of exercise training were based on aerobic methods and few others were conducted on the basis of resistance exercises. Aerobic exercises were found to quite beneficial to the patients as it a very valuable strategy that influnced the physiolgical parameters and reduced risks of metabolism such as insulin resistance. Most of the randomised studies indicated that high vliumes of aerobic excersise resukts in weight loss which in the end improved the level of insulin sensitivity in the cells.

Strengths and weakness

The articles focused on obtaining eveidence from already published reasearch works about exercise and diabets. The focus was mainly on tehrelatioship between the two and how thy impact on each other. The indepth anaylsis of a number of studies and the level of serach that was employed gave a clear picture of the impact of exerciese on type II diabetes mellitus. The comparison of up to 25 articles gave room for very little bias and borought in the actual facts. The randomised nature of the study also ensured that the study conclusion was drawan from a wider field and geographical coverage. This ensuded that the information obtained was not limited to one particular society or race. The study howver is limited in the sence that there was no actual ground work that was conducted to obtain eveidence with relation to the impact of excersie on diabetes. The study only based its finding on the already availbale information published in excisiting journals. This facts limits the study in that there is no certainity in the validy of the information since over time, the various aspects of medicine change and the ways of handling certain medical conditions change. It is therefore very necessary to conduct actual ground work so as to obtain toungible eveidence from the ground.


The outcome of the study is very relevant to the topic of interest as it attmts to attach eveidence to nursing practice. The paper brings togetehr a collection of various findings about the imoacts of exercise on diabetes mellitus and the indepth analysis brings about tangible evidence that can be used to support the clinical question.

Article 3

Pai, L.-W., Li, T.-C., Hwu, Y.-J., Chang, S.-C., Chen, L.-L., & Chang, P.-Y. (2016). The effectiveness of regular leisure-time physical activities on long-term glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice , 113, 77-85.

The study had the objective of systematically reviewing how effective various forms of regular physical activity are and the combined overal influence of thes activities on the contol of diabetes mellitus. The study employed a randomized control design in the research process. In the study, pysical activities during leisure time was used as an inervention for the type II diabetese patients. The particpants included adults who were above 18 years of age diagnosed with type II diabetes mellitus. Some of the liesure activities involved included yoga, swimming, walking, gardening, cycling, jogging and dancing. The prefered desine of study was a randomised control design. The interventions lasted for a duration of a minimum of 8 weeks and was not combined with any other inyerventions. The implementation was done 2-3 time every week and each episode lasted 30 minutes. The control group was taken through routine care following the advice of clinical professionals. The care incuded general physical activities, dietary control and medications.



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