There has been substantial evidence which indictes that workout and eating behavior are very much linked. The theory of planned behavior is a academic context which is used to identify and predict both responses (Blue, 1995). The present study that has been done looks forward to exploring the constructs of planned behavior theory in predicting the healthy dietary and exercise. Lack of exercise comes hand in hand with obesity as a health problem that unfortunately has been impacted on most of the people in the cities (Blue, 1995). Scholars have been able to carry out different studies showing how exercise and diabetics are related. There are various factors which influence eating habits and the level of activity that an individual undertakes. This paper will focus on the behavior issues which are eating habits and exercise and will explore how the planned behavior theory can be used to examine and intervene upon the chosen behavior.
Effects of Eating Habits and Exercise
Factors that might hinder excellent dietary behaviors and he level of work out of an individual and they include dietary pattern, emotions, workload, family and knowledge, .marketing, social factors, daily routines, (Bozionelos, & Bennett, 1999). For a lot of people, feelings have been playing a great role in dietary behavior. Diet habits that are related to a persons emotions and could lead to obesity problems which are in the list of the enemies of a healthy diet and proper regulations (Bozionelos, & Bennett, 1999). Food marketing and massive production of food have been accused of tampering with the perception of diet, healthy consumption and the other nutritional rules.
Exercise is a crucial factor of a healthy lifestyle. Numerous study has indicated that regular physical exercise can cause preventive strategy for different illness such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and colon cancer among others. Exercise has been said to be beneficial to the physical health and also to the psychological well-being (Bozionelos, & Bennett, 1999). Exercise enables one to have a sufficient state of mind, decreases anxiety and stress, and it also increases an individual self-esteem. Despite the healthy benefits that come with healthy exercise, the majority of individuals, especially in the adult population, does not carry out physical exercise, and they are not active enough.
The high occurrence of exercise evaluates the necessity to learn the probable issues which impact the ability of some physical exercise being done or not done. For intervention to be made strategies can be developed to increase the number of individuals who do physical exercise (Psouni, Hassandra, & Theodorakis, 2016). One of the most reliable psychological theories in contemporary health and physical exercise is the theory of planned behavior
The interaction between the benefits that exercise have played with the sector of health, leaves a considerate way to allow the full potential of the physical exercises and health programs to thrive. It is said that the greatest motivation for the people have been the fact that they can indulge in some workout although not frequent. (Bozionelos, & Bennett, 1999). Planned behavior theory deals with the people beliefs and the fact that their control of things leads to making out barriers that prohibit exercises to take place.
Overview of Theory
Planned behavior theory has supported a relationship for the prediction of a lot of desperate health behaviors including exercise. Behavioral intentions involve how individuals perceive plans of action and the motivation. The perception of behavior control indicates the confidence that is applied in peoples skills and in the determination to construct self-efficacy. The behavioral intention can also be identified by some constructs like how an individual perceive the social pressure and what motivates them into carrying out an action. The attitude that one has towards a behavior reflects the positive or the negative evaluation that the person can make for the performing activities (Psouni, Hassandra, & Theodorakis, 2016). The last aspect entails the ability for the individual to predict the behavioral intention making it more likely to strengthen the capacity to predict. It can be said that it is more likely for a person to do physical exercise if they consider it to be good for them and if they perceive that the social pressure is relying on them to carry it out. They will also do some exercise if they have that belief that they are capable of such an activity.
Literature has shown that the health behavior interventions that uses the planned behavior theory are more effective in changing the behavior when it is compared to the others. When based on the level of influence, theories of health behavior are grouped into three categories namely individual or intrapersonal, interpersonal and community level theories (Bozionelos, & Bennett, 1999). Planned behavior theory is a different level of approach that aims to explain and predict behavior and has been widely applied to studies exploring eating and physical exercise behavior.
Panned Behavior theory is a continuation of the developed Reasoned Action theory which indicates that behavioral intentions are considered one of the most important determinants of behavior (Psouni, Hassandra, & Theodorakis, 2016). Intention relates to the motivation or the willingness to try and increase the efforts so that the current conduct can change. Planned behavior and Reasoned Action theory carry out the intention and the attitude that ends up controlling them.
Perceived behavior control was added to the TPB so that they could account for the conduct that have been reported to be out of the ordinary. Alleged control of behavior allows the accessibility of chances and means to conduct and reflect both the external factors. Unlike when it is a matter of the straightforward relationship, the link between the perceived behavioral control and behavior can be more complex in exerting both direct and interactive effects on the behavior. When volitional control limits the performance of the behavior, perceived behavioral control gives the potential to predict directly on the behavior that moderates the dependence that exist between conduct and purpose.
Effective of TPB
TPB examines a broad range of conduct among them health behaviors like exercise and eating habits (Bozionelos, & Bennett, 1999). Most of the studies that have been carried out recommend the use of prospective design so as TPB can be viewed in the theoretical framework. The variables of the TPB and that of the different behaviors examined have been assessed at different time periods (Psouni, Hassandra, & Theodorakis, 2016). The intervention of behaviors is usually considered as the strongest and independent. With the attitudes being reported as the strongest predictor of diet, the perceived behaviors control the predictor and the related intentions. Behavioral intentions only account for 20-40% of the variance in the intention.
Application of TPB in Eating Habits
TPB has been used in the study of eating habits especially the diets that people undertake. The intake of fat, fruit and vegetable intake have been among the issues on the discussion (Norman et al., 2007). The vitamin supplementation, dairy consumption, and soy intake are what are considered as healthful diet consumption. TPB is necessary for examining and explaining a variety of dietary behaviors. Using various methods like the cross-sectional and longitudinal in the TPB studies, there are illustrations made that reveals the fact the application of the theory and the behaviors.
The cross-sectional studies examine the variety of nutrition and the diet-related behaviors like eating habits with the inclusion of fruits, vegetables and also fats (Norman et al., 2007). The predictive ability of the TPB is expected to be better in the cross-sectional study compared to the other study design reason being that the beliefs that are salient at that particular time when the respondent are filling in the TBP questions are the same with those performing the actual behavior as both occur at the same point in time (Norman et al., 2007). TPB explains the decision that people make so they can eat healthily and in that consideration, the 42% of the variance goes to the intentions while 15% of the variance goes to the behavior. Intentions are the strongest predictor of dairy product consumption while attitude follows in the second place.
A Case Study
Exercise is one of the non-pharmacological methods that can be used in the treatment of illness like diabetics due to the positive effects it has on the diabetic patients (Didarloo et al., 2011). The study conducted designed to identify the factors that has been influencing the women of Iran while examining TPB which is known to be a continuation of TRA. The study relied on 352 women as a sample population, and they were female with type 2 diabetes (Didarloo et al., 2011). The referral clinic was in Iran at place called Khoy and they were the participants in the research. There was an appropriate instrument which was done and was designated to quantify the anticipated variable. The variables were the subjective norms, behavioral exercise, the personal beliefs that people had, behavioral intention, the knowledge of diabetes and perceived self-efficacy. The tools were reliable and valid and dependent test, and correlation tests were applied.
The results indicated that the greatest predictor was self-efficacy of intention among the women who had diabetics type two and the fact that they were both affected either directly or indirectly with the physical activities (Didarloo et al., 2011). The findings suggested that the examination of exercise and physical work out should be done by TPB as the primary cause of type 2 diabetics and educational intervention was needed. Methods of improving diabetics physical activity behavior were suggested to control the disease (Didarloo et al., 2011). Regular physical exercise is the most significant factors for improving and maintaining health issues including diabetics. Physical activity was identified by the TPB theory as a fundamental activity in the organization of diabetes type 2.
Low levels of exercise in the diabetic patients especially women can be out of psychological factors, individual factors and social factors (Norman et al., 2007). The TPB helped in recognizing those aspects so that health services provision can be aided considering suitable involvements for endorsing behavior activity among people with diabetes.
Theory or Reasoned Action
TRA is considered to be the best theories of activities modification since it has been found to demonstrate the competence in expecting and defining the effectiveness in predicting the health behaviors. The theory privileges that the intent to accomplish the performance is clarified by an amalgamation of outlooks and personal norms (Norman et al., 2007). Attitudes like beliefs in a certain practice lead to some outcome whereby the subjective criteria contain the social pressure that one is subjected to when appealing in a different behavior. TRA cab is sufficient in examining the objective to carry out activities in the diabetics patients. With the addition to add several constructs, TRA deals with the perception to be in charge of the behaviors.
TRA suggested an allowance a third determinant of the behavioral intention to be self-efficacy. TRA deals with efficacy only while TPB has the inclusion of attitude towards behavior and subjective norm (Norman et al., 2007). The self -efficacy belief enables people to reflect their thoughts and their proficiency to accomplish various behaviors and the infl...
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