The history of Texas begins with the arrival of the Spanish. The history is characterized by the tremendous shift to agriculture as an economic activity, womens participation in the political activity, the New Deal, and the second World War. The New Deal was the collection of federal programs established in 1933 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, with regards to the calamity of the Greatest Depression and it continued until 1942 when America involved itself in the second World War. Texas used to operate independently without the assistance of other states, pushing through a democratic and economically stable society.
Why do you think that agriculture remained the cornerstone of the Texas economy in the late nineteenth century even though so many Texans wanted the state to industrialize?
In the late 19th century, the economy of Texas had a tremendous development, as agriculture remained the major economic activity. Texans engaged in ranching and farming. The growth in agriculture was brought by the availability of farming equipment, growth in the number of animals in the ranches, the availability of improved and fertile farmlands. Besides the production of cotton and corn grew equal to its demand. Also, the farmland expanded and the price for buying land decreased. These reasons gave people a reason why they should shift into agriculture since its profits were promising.
What parts of the New Deal appealed mostly to a majority of Texans? What parts of it did many Texans oppose? How do you explain that opposition?
The appealing part of the New Deal to the people of Texas was the fact that, it offered them the opportunity of getting employed by creating Social Security and retirement fund, together with developing more jobs assisting in averting coming of another Great Depression as well as stopping government corruption.
However, there is some part of the New Deal that was opposed by the people of Texas, they didnt like the government programs like unemployment relief since they were concerned about devastated individual self-reliance. Texans opposed the presidential powers, which the president affirmed that he will support the judiciary and consider the proposal of increasing the Supreme Court membership. The recommendation was controversial and Texans were against the presidents power of adding up to six judges to the court every time where the incumbent member turned seventy and yet retired.
Describe the political gains achieved by women and minorities in Texas in the 1960s and 1970s. How did these gains change party politics in the state?
Women occupied prominent positions in Texas, Mary Clardy was the assistant state lecturer while Fannie Moss was secretary-treasurer and Frances Leak was elected to in 1892 to replace Moss. Some like Bettie Munn Gay and Ellen Lawson Dabbs joined the National Farmers Alliance gave rise to the Peoples party. Women went ahead to form associations which they operated independently to articulate their grievances and demonstrated their activism. As "social mothers" women were pushing for the improved public system, access to public health, protection for the working women. They pushed for political amendments, politics helped them to pass some laws such as the pure-food law (1907), juvenile court systems (1907) among others.
Nineteenth and twentieth century was a historical period for the Texans. The period is characterized by controversies, especially the opposition that the people had the new deal. The new deal was viewed to be oppressive to the people and hence it was rejected by many. Furthermore, the Texans preferred doing agriculture instead of taking part in the industrialization, making Texas ideal for growing corns and cotton. Agriculture was much more profitable and various factor favored it. Lastly, women played a substantial role in politics by taking prominent elective posts which led to political parties, women further played role in enacting laws that will seek social, economic and political development of Texas.
Wallace, Ernest, ed. Documents of Texas History. Steck Company, 1963.
Wooten, Dudley G., ed. A Comprehensive History of Texas, 1685-1897: 1845-1897. Vol. 2. Texas State Historical Association, 1986.
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