In the article, Gender inequalities in the workplace: The effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers sexism by Stamarski and Son Hing (2015), evaluates the discrimination of women due to the HR practices that enhance gender inequality enacted by organizations. Some of the questions that the authors tried to answer in their research include the effect of organizational structure, processes, and practices on HR practice, and the effect of hostile and benevolent sexism and how organization decision makers conduct HR practices. They also asked the question of the effects of organizational structures, processes, and practices on organizational decision makers levels of hostile and benevolent sexism; and, how to reduce gender discrimination in the workplace (Stamarski & Son Hing, 2015). For their hypotheses, the authors proposed a model where they explained the cause of discrimination against women arises from human resource policies and human resource-related decision-making. The findings of the research indicated that the most efficient way for women to challenge group-based inequality and to challenge the status of the women is through a collective action (Stamarski & SonHing, 2015). They found out that individual women could also work out to fight stigmatization. The authors also found out that levels of benevolent sexism are reduced when individuals are informed about the consequences of benevolent sexism.
One of the quasi-experimental design that can be used to describe the research in the article by Stamaraski & Son Hing (2015) is the one-group pretest and posttest design. According to Reichardt (2009), the one-group pretest and posttest design specify that observation is assessed before treatment is introduced to the individuals. The treatment is later introduced and then the inspection between the pretest and the posttest is made. The difference between the effects of the pretest and the posttest treatment is employed to determine the size of the impact of the procedure. For example in the case of the article by Stamarski and Son Hing (2015), the authors could have used the one group, which are the women and place them in an organization without assessing its practices and determine the effects of the companys practices on the women. Putting the women in an organization without offering any treatment, in this case, will be the pretest observation. The authors would later perform a posttest treatment where they would assess the effects of organizational structures, processes, and practices on HR practices The results from the two test would later be compared for drawing conclusions.
The quasi-experimental approach, one- group pretest and posttest method is similar to the experimental approach in that both research methods view the question as a research intervention in which treatment should be administered to determine the results. Both groups would utilize statistical methods to assess the outcome of the research. Both approaches would also consider reliability and validity of the research instruments. However, a quasi-experimental design lacks random assignment as opposed to the experimental method where the researcher randomly selects the samples, and he decides the control group and the treatment group.
Seasonality, maturation, and statistical regression are some of the threats to internal validity in both quasi-experimental design and experimental approach. Seasonality can be a threat to internal validity when the cyclical variations in the outcome are present. Statistical regression threat can occur when scores vary over time naturally. Maturation would be a threat to internal validity when the units being assessed change simply because of age (Reichardt, 2009). The experimental approach has a threat to internal validity that is not present in the quasi-experimental approach. The threat to internal validity of the experimental method may compromise the confidence of stating the existence of a relationship between independent and dependent variables.
The results from the one-group pretest and posttest method would be interpreted by comparing the observations made before the treatment observation was done and after the observation test is administered. The authors would conduct statistical analysis where the second time series of observation serves as a comparison series of the treatment introduced in the first time series.
Reichardt, C., S. (2009). Quasi-Experimental Design. In Roger E. Millsap & Alberto Maydeu-Olivares (Eds.), The sage handbook of quabtitative methods in psychology (pp. 46-72). Olivers Yard, London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Stamarski, C,S., & Son Hing, L, S. (2015). Gender inequalititers in the workplace: The effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers sexism. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, pp. 1-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01400.
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