The Etiology of Plugged Duct - Medical Essay

Published: 2021-07-01
1034 words
4 pages
9 min to read
Harvey Mudd College
Type of paper: 
Annotated bibliography
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The word etiology is the process of systematically and psychological searching out for the cause of an uncertain occurrence in a phenomenon such as the human body and especially diseases. Therefore, the etiology of plugged duct involves the process of identifying the problem associated with the difficulty in passage of milk in lactating mothers.

According to Omran et. Al (2014), the main issue involves the occurrence of inclusion in the milk passageways. Therefore, it is very evident that mothers face risks in breast problems which in turn have several effects on the unborn. The problem may involve pain in the first days of lactating and a little result of milk emptying. Omran et. al claim that this issue has been very similar in mothers who do not receive good care during their pregnancy period. According to their research, it is clear that the problems were not same with mothers who had the vaginal delivery. In addition, parents who had good care during their birthing period did not experience the problems. This also involves parents who enhanced right positions when breastfeeding their young ones. Mothers who had the breast problem experienced a decrease in the frequency of their urination and had a loss of their body weight. This clearly indicates that the breast problems have an impact on the affected mothers. To prevent the occurrence of breast problems, Omran et. al advice that it is critical to for pregnant women to be taken good care. It is more important to conduct a frequent check on the breasts at all the stages including before and after delivery to make sure that they are in good condition and prevent other associated problems.

The article is well detailed with useful information. It specializes in the problems associated with breasts in lactating mothers. The research methodologies used are safe and offer accurate information. The methods provide intensive data. They recognize that there is a breast problem in the society. Furthermore, the research shows the causes associated with the occurrence of the problems and the possible impacts of the problems to the affected mothers. In summary, they also offer the possible prevention measures to be taken to cope with the breast problems and any other associated problems. There are also several treatment methods provided to assist the affected mothers.

On the other hand, Prachniak (2002) also introduces the issue of common problems which are associated with breastfeeding. He mainly focuses on all the breast associated problems in general. It is evident in the research that the common breast problems include nipple pain, obstruction in the milk duct, mastitis and engorgement. It also may involve flat and inverted nipples in some mothers. Flat and inverted nipples occur as a result of the medication offered to the mothers during delivery. It can be prevented through proper conduct with the nurses during delivery. Nipple pain occurs due to improper latch-on techniques and improper positioning of the child during lactation. It can also be prevented. The mothers need to acquire skills from specific persons to avoid the occurrence. Engorgement, on the other hand, involves the regular and high quantity of milk in the mothers breasts. It may occur due to improper breastfeeding and therefore, may affect the breast tissues hence less milk after a given period. The problem can be solved through proper breastfeeding and medical assistance to gain the appropriate skills to avoid the problem. Most appropriate regards the issue to dealing with mastitis. Its signs include fever and breast soreness. It can be prevented through moist heating of the affected part and proper bed rest. The concerned mother is also advised to remove the excess milk left after lactating.

The article is more emphasizing and generalizing. It analyses all the problems associated with breasts of lactating mothers. The report shows all the possible breast problems, the causes and the prevention and treatment measures in case they are diagnosed. Therefore, it offers all the information required in coming up with breast problems, their causes, and the necessary prevention and treatment measures.

Furthermore, according to Campbell (2006), he establishes the problem of plugged ducts in general. He approaches the question in that; plugged duct involves all the problems associated with the breasts. The research also argues that when the problem is not taken good care of at the early stages, it may cause further problems such as mastitis among others. The main symptoms include temper lamb in the breast, and at many times the breast may feel hot. Campbell also argues that the plugged duct may be a historical problem. It may involve recurrent ducts which can be symbolized by high milk supply and an abnormal behavior of the breasts during lactation. It is also evident that Campbell bases cause on cultural and traditional perspectives especially when he says that mothers may breastfeed their young ones based on the cultural expectations and hence the mother has excess milk which can lead to engorgement. Campbell bases evidence of the plugged duct on traditional, cultural and environmental factors. The preventive and treatment measures of the plugged duct include directed massage, the water therapy and adequate opportunities of breastfeeding among others. In summary, Campbell offers great information and evidence from all the perspectives people live in.

In general, all the authors offer the best information on plugged ducts. For instance, Prachniak (2002) explores the idea widely and interprets his information bit by bit giving all the possible problems associated with breasts. Omran et. al (2014) exhibits general causes, symptoms and prevention and treatment measures to plugged ducts. Best of all, Campbell (2006) approaches the problem in all the perspectives that is traditional way, cultural way, and the environmental contribution. Therefore, he considers all the possible causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment measures from all the perspectives.


Boskabadi, H., & Ramazanzadeh, M., & Zakerihamidi, M., & Omran, F.R., (2014). Iranian Crescent Red Journal: Risk Factors of Breast Problems in Mothers and Its Effects on Newborns, Vol 16, 1-5. Retrieved from: (

Campbell, S.H. (2006). Consultants Corner: Recurrent Plugged Ducts, Journal of Human Lactation, 22, 340-343. Retrieved from: (

Prachniak G.K, (2002). Breast Disease: Common Breastfeeding Problems, Vol 29, 77-86.


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