Summary and Theories as Structures - Essay Sample

Published: 2021-08-02
577 words
3 pages
5 min to read
Vanderbilt University
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A philosophy that borrows concepts in scientific concepts is a complex field in the study of aspects of life. In most Universities, what is the thing called science? Is offer a basis for philosophical; studies that base their arguments on elements of epistemology which is the philosophy of knowledge concerning science. In the book, there are some strange examples concerning ambivalence towards scientific approaches. For instance, one of the concepts argues that science should be equivalent to knowledge suggesting that it is worth appropriate to find knowledge only through scientific research and methods. This idea among others directs this article in the analysis of chapter eights concepts and study of theories as structures that are outlined.

Chalmers (2013, p.104) outlines that for a better formulation of a hypothesis about anything experienced in the world, an observation must accompany ones ideas for a proper thesis. Concerning the above statement, Charmer (2013) pushes on making the theories that involve observation through Aristotles inductive-deductive approach. Through the concept of inductive-deductive theory, a new method of inquiry called hypothetical-deductive sets in a while in the process of research but not during setting of new conclusions. Charmer (2013, p.106) a paradigm is a base for an activity until when a revolution that is followed by a new paradigm sets in was challenged by Charmers suggestion that science is a platform for making the transition from one paradigm to another. In this case, it was made clear that Chalmers embraced the fact a new knowledge proven by scientific findings should overshadow the previous model.

According to the statement that historical studies are a basis for the use of a scientific methodology that includes Kuhns induction method suggest that theories are structures that are used to come up with a valid result concerning a hypothesis. It is well structured that some popular mythical, experiment was Galileos innovations to mechanics and that experiments should only apply theories as structures to coming up with a trusted result that should be termed as an accepted paradigm.

It should be noted that just the was a writer who avoids definition fails to support their claim., science and philosophy works together since as much as philosophy explains about speculations of the world, scientific approaches prove the speculation. Therefore, according to Charmers (2013), there should be an objective for finding or inquiring into the uncertainties.

From the controversies seen by Charmers and Kuhn, it can be seen that traditional accounts of science, philosophical foundations, inductive and the theory of falsifications should all work together to gather the real issues concern the world and help in coming up with scientific assumptions that take over the old or null hypothetical beliefs and assumptions. In applying Charmers and Kuhns ideas, scientific researchers should be guided by both null hypotheses that aim at describing a particular faith. Secondly, the empirical inquiry should also employ proven hypothesis that should involve theories which govern in a researcher into the direction of obtaining a determined result of the research through general definitions.

In conclusion, this chapter aimed at streamlining both Kuhn and Charmers ideas on assumptions, the null hypothesis, and importance of applying traditional accounts, methods involving observation, induction theories and verification in coming up with a final research finding that takes over previous assumptions in a process called a paradigm shift. Approaches, therefore, help in developing scientific beliefs that take over philosophical beliefs which mere assumptions guide some.


Chalmers, A. F. (2013). What is this thing called science? Hackett Publishing, 104-109

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