Perception of learners regarding different areas of academic endeavors has been subjected to scholarly analysis to determine the extent to which the reality reflects the existing postulates. The process of learning is complex and included several dimension, which affects the perception of students. When seeking to achieve the best outcome, educators have been keen to incorporate the cross-sectional recommendations to assist learners in attaining the expected result and solving existing challenges. This literature review examines key concepts associated with the students perceptions regarding learning English using problem-solving approach when dealing with the topic of teenage cyber bullying. The review has considered the Higher Order Thinking Skills, problem-solving as a method of teaching, and students perceptions of learning reading comprehension using problem-solving. Moreover, the paper also provides an overview of teaching English as a foreign language in the Arab Sector, teaching reading comprehension for Arab EFL learners, teenage cyber bullying, and intervention programs in line with educating students about the issue of cyber bullying using problem-solving.
Higher Order Thinking SkillsThe process of learning is associated with the development of capacities that can guarantee continuous learning. According to King, Goodson, and Rohani (2011), thinking and reasoning, making decisions regularly, solving problems, and developing interpersonal competence is part of the skills that learners need to achieve the anticipated education-based goals. Studies indicating how Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) is necessary for learning have also ascertained how the lack of such competencies lead to skewed outcome among learners (Rajendran & Idris, 2008). Worth pointing out is that the utilization of HOTS cuts across the education divides and disciplines including the elementary and higher learning levels (Yee et al., 2011). In fact, Rajendran and Idris (2008) showed that student who has been trained to embrace HOTS has a higher affinity to solve complex problems and design solutions for their experiences when compared to those who did not undergo the development of problem-solving skills.
Moreover, scholars have been keen to present how the use of HOTS impact the learning process and the perception of the student. According to Yee et al. (2011), HOTS is designed to enable learners to acquire capabilities that are essential in enhancing the learning process as well as helping the student to analyze, develop, and synthesize existing and new concepts based on the presented scenarios. When learners are in a position to develop interconnected of the key learning skills and generate new insights from inferences, then they are considered to have exhibited HOT. Worth noting is that HOTS has been used to influence performance in vocational and technical training among learners. However, the focus of researchers has been on the effect that skills such as remembering, applying, understanding, evaluating, analyzing, and creating exert on the perception of the student (Thomas & Thorne, 2009). Such a consideration has shifted the learning process from focusing on what the learners are thinking about how they are discerning concepts (Chinedu et al., 2014).
Learning Tool: Problem Solving as a Method of TeachingProblem-solving is a component of education curriculum and the delivery of instruction. The method involves a continuous process associated with the generation of new ideas and knowledge from known facts and inferences. Therefore, in most cases, scholars have shown that problem-solving is associated with the creation of hypotheses, conducting a test of the propositions, and generating a satisfactory conclusion. A critical review of the problem-solving process indicates that the method is associated with three major functions: the seeking of information, the generation of new knowledge, and the making of decision-based on evidence. In most cases, the technique has been linked to the need for reducing the content burden by allowing students to develop solutions to the problems they are facing at a time (Orhan & Ruban, 2007). On the other hand, the transformations exhibited in learning has entailed the shift from classroom teaching to a holistic approach that provides insights to influence the competencies and perception of learners with the aim of developing key skills from experience (Elvan, Ezgi, and Mustafa, 2010). Although several models have been presented regarding the problem-solving approach to learning, the five-stage approach has been adopted across different disciplines in education. The proponents of the model indicate that following a multi-staged sequence is associated with great results among learners. The levels include the following: understanding the problem, identifying existing barriers, assessing various solutions, implement the selected strategy, and evaluating the outcome (Kirtikar, 2013).
Students Perceptions of Learning Reading Comprehension Using Problem SolvingReading comprehension is a central component of learning the English language. The incorporation of the problem-solving technique is essential in improving the experience and outcome associated with the activities that learners undertake. According to Harvey and Goudvis (2007), learners with little or no prior experience or knowledge related to getting new information face significant challenges when constructing meaning. In reading, students connect what they know with the new insights associated with learning and understanding phenomena. Since researchers have shown that reading and thinking are inseparable, strategies meant to improve how learners perceive concepts have been presented from a cross-sectional analysis. Learners have been able to develop key skills through the incorporation of assumptions and background needs. Worth pointing out is that the experience of learners during the reading of comprehension can be enhanced by including multiple strategies (Harvey & Goudvis, 2007). Therefore, good readers have been associated with excellent reading habits and the ability to link experiences with the texts.
On the other hand, the thinking competency is not an instantaneous occurrence, which ascertains how the skills are developed over an extended period to enhance the outcome associated with reading (Frey, 2006). In most cases, learners have been depicted seeking to understand and analyze the best strategies that will enhance their reading abilities; however, the role of the educators attached to such students define the extent they become strong and active readers of comprehension. According to Harvey and Goudvis (2007), a learner with a variety of text-based understanding of a variety of genre is positioned above other learners with limited exposure. On the other hand, the use of scripted reading programs, in line with the findings of Ede (2006), has been adopted in schools seeking to improve test scores; however, this approach is limited in the range of texts that can meet the reading comprehension needs of each learner.
Teaching English as a Foreign Language in the Arab SectorThe education system is a comprehensive framework that guarantees the desired knowledge dissemination in a particular setting. One of the key factors in education is the teaching of foreign language. In the Arab region, the teaching of English as a foreign language has been part of the transformational undertakings in learning (Farch, 2010). The teaching of English is founded on the connection that exists between language and ideology. Such a case has been important in informing the process of instruction in the Arab region. Although studies have ascertained how the expectations have been below average, the inclusion of new perspective in learning has been geared towards enhancing the skills of the learners. According to Farch (2010), while examining the reasons why the EFL programs fail to deliver as expected, pointed out that the lack of teacher preparation, low level of motivation among students, and insufficient assessment skills and plans have contributed to the learning shortcomings.
Worth pointing out is that the learning of English in the Arab region has been centered on the need for enhancing how learners perceive concepts in the society to accommodate the global diversities (Farch, 2010). Moreover, scholars have postulated that the teaching of English in the region have emanated from the current shift associated with the adoption of the language across the globe. The experience of some educators has also linked the process of teaching of English as a foreign language in the Arabian region as a necessity for advancing the anti-racist teaching for ideology-based decision-making among learners (Awayed-Bishara, 2015). Nevertheless, such perspectives have been regarded as personal inferences of experienced instructors and trainers, which have been subjected to limited assessments. However, cultural embeddedness, as well as deeply-rooted prejudice, have contributed to the disparity in learning English in the region when compared to the experiences of learners and educators across the globe (Awayed-Bishara, 2015).
Teaching Reading Comprehension for Arab EFL LearnersThe attention of researchers regarding the teaching of reading comprehension for EFL students has been on the effects of strategies employed to attain the expected outcome. According to Chen and Yang (2015), different strategies have been subjected to analysis to determine their implications; however, the need for student-based and educator-based perception is still required. The experience among Arab learners is diverse, but the lexical recognition, as well as syntactic competencies, have been essential in enhancing the reading abilities among EFL readers. Such cases have been associated with instances where the learners are seeking to improve their reading comprehension expectations. According to Grabe (2009), reading of comprehension cannot be separated from the academic achievement among foreign language students. The scenario in the Arab region is not different from the global experiences since the relationship witnessed among proficient readers have resulted in more cross-sectional assessment on EFL students achievements. Similar sentiments have been postulated by Logan, Medford, and Hughes (2011) where the trio pointed out that reading of comprehension among EFL learners influences the reading and writing dimension of the academic endeavors.
Although the experience of learners in reading comprehension depict a similar experience, the Arab case studies are unique. One of the key consideration has been the challenges characterizing the teaching processes and the manner in which learners embrace progress. In most cases, learners do not understand the reading process (Mourtaga, 2005). The existence of insufficient linguistic skills a...
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