Bui, X., Quirk, C., Almazan, S., & Valenti, M. (2010). Inclusive education research and practice. Maryland Coalition for Inclusive Education, 1-14.
Inclusive education research and practice is a descriptive article as it describes the importance of including the students with disabilities in a general classroom. Over the past years, research has indicated that the inclusion of the students living with disabilities in the general education system has led to favorable outcomes. According to the article, positive results have been shown to both the students with high incidence disabilities and the ones with low incidence disabilities. High incidence disabilities students are the ones with learning disabilities and mild disabilities while low incidence disabilities students are the ones with Furthermore, qualitative and quantitative studies were used in this research.
The studies, which investigate the impact of placing children with disabilities in a general classroom, show positive outcome in areas with a time of engagement, IEP quality, and individualized supports. Putting the children with disabilities in a general class led to increasing the instructional time, improved IEP quality, the involvement of more students, and maintenance of the individualized supports. Additionally, most of the research studies that examine educational outcomes have shown positive results due to the inclusion. The study that was conducted by Waldron et al. in 2001 revealed that the students with learning disabilities had progressed as compared to the way they perform when they are left to study alone in their classroom. The outcome indicates that it is essential for the students with disabilities to be included in the general classroom. The reason is that it makes them have a sense of belonging. Engaging them with the other students with no disabilities makes them strive to achieve high results as the other students are doing.
Positive educational outcomes do not only involve the area of academics. The National Longitudinal Transition research that examined 11,000 students revealed that more time, which was spent in a general classroom, has a positive correlation with things like absence from school, better outcome after getting out of school, and few referrals due to disruptive behavior. Furthermore, no studies that have been conducted from the 1970s shown an academic advantage for the learners with intellectual and developmental disabilities for the ones educated in the separate settings. Concerns have also been raised on the behaviors of students with disabilities have on learning with the typical students. The impact of typical peers includes no difference on the student engagement and instructional time. Furthermore, the presence of the students with disabilities leads to a higher number of the regular students making math and reading progress as compared to the non-inclusive general education classes. Therefore, the inclusion of the students with disabilities is essential as it also benefits the other typical students by making them have new learning opportunities.
According to the article, inclusion is beneficial to both the students with or without disabilities. Through inclusion, there is peer tutoring which results in high engagement and academic responses for the students who have low incidence abilities. It also results in an academic gain for the students having high incidence abilities. Peer support also helps the students with disabilities to perform well in class. In the peer support issue, the typical students have high roles of assisting the students with disabilities. Research also shows that the peers who have severe disabilities have to spend more time engaging in activities that are aligned with the general curriculum.
Adapting has always been a significant issue for the students living with disabilities. Some of the useful adaptions for the students who have mild abilities include strategy instruction, mnemonics, and inquiry approach science. However, for the students who have severe disabilities, less than 10% of them focus on education and presence of some modifications increases the academic response and reduces their competing behavior. Moreover, the general classroom is the best placement of choice for the students with disabilities. Inclusion is also essential as it helps in shaping the attitudes of the students with disabilities.
Some of the findings of the authors include the fact that placing students with disabilities in general classroom results in increased instructional time, improved IEP quality, and engagement of more students. Another finding is that the students with high incidence disabilities make academic progress in the general classes as compared to when they are isolated. The inclusion of the students with disabilities also gives them a room for growth, and it helps in shaping their attitudes. Peer tutoring is also essential as it results in a rise in engagement and academic responses for the students who have low incidence disabilities.
According to me, it is beneficial to include the students with disabilities in a general classroom. The reason is that it improves their academic performances as they feel they have a sense of belonging. Furthermore, it makes them strive to work harder so that they can compete with their typical students. Exposure and experience of the concepts of special education lead to positive attitudes. Therefore, the students with disabilities should be given the chance of being in a general classroom as it has a positive impact on them.
Ervin, R. A., DuPaul, G. J., Kern, L., & Friman, P. C. (1998). Classroombased functional and adjunctive assessments: Proactive approaches to intervention selection for adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31(1), 65-78.
This article analyzes the utility of the classroom-based adjunctive and functional assessments of the problem of two teenagers who had met the criteria of attention comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The environmental classroom variables for the students with ODD and ADHD were related when the teachers systematically manipulated them. The students with these ADHD have problems in following instructions, sustaining attention to activities, completing assigned work, and following the general classroom rules. Furthermore, the kids with ADHD can have an additional diagnosis that is characterized by disobedient, hostile, and defiant behaviors like ODD. Research shows that children with this disorder are at a risk of later academic failure.
The method used in this study is that the two participants were diagnosed with ADHD and met the DSM-IV criteria for ODD. According to the survey, Joey who is a Caucasian got an IQ of 98 while Carl who is a Hispanic obtained an IQ of 91 on Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Furthermore, the study was conducted in a school setting with 250 students. Some of the tasks undertaken include attending an assigned class work passively or actively. The off tasks conduct were also coded in case a problem of behavior occurred in the interval. The method of data collection in this study was Problem Behavior Observation Form. Questionnaires helped in assessing the teachers satisfaction. The learners were also given questionnaires to determine their opinions by giving them a chance or rating the success of the social validity and intervention.
In the case of Joey, the information that was obtained from direct observations and teachers interview revealed that he mostly engaged in the off tasks behaviors when he was given a paper writing task. Engaging in writing was one of his favorite classes. Furthermore, the study indicated that he actively involved in journal writing when he participates in a discussion concerning the topic before writing. Moreover, it was hypothesized that his behaviors would be maintained through escaping from the pencil and paper writing tasks. Joey was also given a computer to use when writing. The first hypothesis of the study is that his on task behavior increases when he is given the chance of competing long tasks of approximately 20 minutes on the computer instead of writing using his hand. Another hypothesis is that his on task behavior will rise when he gets the chance of brainstorming before a short written task of about 6 minutes.
In Carls case, his off-task behaviors were followed with peer attention that included smiling, laughter, or gestures. His behaviors came up at high frequencies in the descriptive observations. However, his disruptive behaviors occurred less frequently when the teachers are around or when the teachers have an eye contact with him. Some of the intervention strategies discussed with the teachers included reducing access to peer attention, offering contingencies for the correct behavior, and structuring classroom so that he could not engage in the attention-seeking behaviors. The first hypothesis of this research is that the on-task behavior of Carl increases when he is given the opportunity of evaluating his peer attention-seeking attitude, and he is awarded for accuracy. The other hypothesis is that his on task behavior increases when he does not get social reinforcers from his peers because of his behavior.
The findings of this study include a plausible collaborative hypothesis, which was validated in the manipulations of the different classroom variables by the teachers. Another outcome is that for both the two students Carl and Joey a functional relation was shown between the problem behavior and environmental variables. The researchers also found out that the results of this study supported the utility of the school-based functional assessment for the children having ADHD-ODD. Another finding is that the interventions that were initiated during the study led to an improvement in the students behavior. Additionally, it was found out that the behaviors of the students diagnosed with ADHD-ODD are systematically connected to the environmental variables in the current investigation. Therefore, these findings are supporting the utility of functional assessment as a process in which the classroom investigation policies can be evaluated and selected for the children with ADHD-ODD.
In my view, the students diagnosed with ADHD-ODD need the attention of both their teachers and their peers. According to the study, it is evident that one of the students performed well after having a discussion with his peers then doing a test. Furthermore, the teachers play a significant role in shaping the behaviors of the students. It is with their help that the students can perform well. Furthermore, the study shows that Joey and Carl performed well in writing and math respectively. Therefore, it is important for the teachers to pay close attention to the students diagnosed with ADHD-ODD to increase their performance among their peers. It also helps in curbing their irrational behaviors like the need of attention, disobedience, and being defiant. Furthermore, including the students with ADHD-ODD in a general classroom is a good strategy as it gives them the chance of interacting with their peers.
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