Review of Effectiveness of Pneumonia Efficiency and Strategies

Published: 2021-07-02 02:41:04
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Assaad, El-Masri, Porhomayon, and El-Solh, (2012) cited that Vaccination is the primary strategy for pneumonia among seniors which is caused by streptococcus pneumonia. Although this approach has been contested, it remains the most efficient preventive measure among people of age 65 and above. Observational studies have been used to prove the efficacy of the strategy although some randomized controlled trials have proven otherwise. Also when using the influenza vaccination among older adults, various complications arise during the process. For instance, the strain of the virus and its virulence, the difference in the cohort, matching the vaccine with the virus, and many other factors.

Background of the Study

The study was established to confirm that vaccination was effective in preventing pneumonia and influenza infections. Pneumonia is the most severe acute disease and that a person who can withstand the disease is safe from any future infection of the same. Among the elderly at least 48000 and 18000 hospitalizations and death, cases related to pneumonia were reported each year in the USA. The study purpose was to delineate the effectiveness of influenza and pneumococcal, and establish future strategies to deal with the problem. The inferred research questions included; 1. What strategies can be used to help combat pneumonia in future? 2. Is the current vaccination method effective in preventing pneumonia and influenza infections? The purpose and research questions were related.

Method of Study

A metanalysis of studies that reported on the effectiveness of the vaccine was reviewed. The studies utilized random controlled trials and observation study techniques.

Results of the Study

Despite the vaccine being effective in handling pneumonia, the comorbid status among the elders complicates its intervention. For this reason, it is vital to establish a better treatment and preventive measure to manage the situation.

Ethical Considerations

The American national institute of health approved the article; the study was based on an analysis of previously conducted research on the same topic, which observes privacy of participant. Since there was the use of placebos and treatment to compare the effectiveness of the vaccine, there was ethical consideration.

Conclusion

The study was meant to confirm that the vaccine for pneumonia and influenza infection was effective. The study also revealed that as people grow older, the conditions affects the treatment of pneumonia. This also calls for nursing practice to focus on establishing a better treatment to handle the status since from the look of the trends the vaccine may not be effective in future.

The effectiveness of the influenza vaccine based on the administration databases.

Hottes et al. (2011) based their citation on the study that was conducted in Canada between 2000-01 and from 2005-06. Where acute respiratory hospitalization and all-cause mortality cases were compared. This was between the immunized and the non-immunized patients living in a community for senior people. The findings indicated that people who had been immunized had a lower rate of hospitalization and hence developed pneumonia in any season.

Background

Yes, the qualitative methods were appropriate in responding to the questions. The administrative database was used to reveal the practical of the influenza vaccine when used among the elderly population. Data during flu seasons and before the seasons was compared.

Method of study

140,000 seniors who included both immunized and non-immunized were involved in a study where between 50% and 60% were immunized to test the effectiveness of the vaccine.

Results of the study

The effectiveness of the vaccine was overestimated during the pre-season. People of advanced age tendered to take up the vaccine as compared to another group due to the perceived risk. The vaccinated performed better during the influenza season.

Ethical consideration

The study was published under the American national institute, which only promoted peer reviewed articles. Since 140,000 personas were involved, various ethical considerations were available for instance, confidentiality of their personal information.

Conclusion

The central database revealed the importance of vaccination before the season for influenza. Results indicated that senior population was more likely to seek vaccination as compared to the other groups. The vaccine helped to prevent pneumonia.

Influenza vaccination

Jefferson et al. (2010) cited that for the past four decades, the vaccines for influenza have been used globally on people of age 65 years and above. The vaccination helps to reduce the complication among the vulnerable groups which include the elderly.

Background

Assessment of the effectiveness of the vaccine in handling pneumonia among the elderly through comparative studies. Types and the frequency of the complications associated with the use of the influenza vaccines among the people of age 65 years and above.

Method of Study

The effectiveness of the vaccine in preventing pneumonia among the elderly. Random control trials were applied for this study.

Findings of Study

The result revealed that the vaccine was effective in preventing pneumonia among the elderly

Ethical Considerations

The privacy of the information obtained from the people participating in the study was kept private.

Conclusion

The study showed that there was a possibility of preventing influenza by the use of vaccination.

Pneumonia Prevention

Lang et al. cited that Pneumonia is part of the preventable illness but remains among the diseases that cause high cases of hospitalization and other complications among the older adults.

Background

Immunization has been indicated as the key to preventing these adverse occurrences, which is promoted by the annual influenza vaccination programs as a preventive measure.

Method of Study

A metanalysis was done through electronic databases such as EMBASE and PUBMED to identify studies that support the idea that vaccination for the prevention of pneumonia among the seniors.

Finding of Study

The studies that had covered seasonal ammonia were the only ones considered. The studies had to be clinical trials or randomly controlled studies. The finding also indicated that vaccination help in the prevention of pneumonia among the elderly.

Ethical Consideration

The study used ethics to help make sure that information was kept safely.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it was found out that pneumonia can be prevented by the administration of a vaccine. This can help elongate the life of the older adults.

Influenza in Korea

Ryu et al. (2011) cited that in Korea there is a season when the cases of influenza are on the rise. This was the backbone of the study.

Background

The 2008/2009 season in Korea is when influenza was standard for vaccination purposes. This makes an excellent environment to carry out a study.

Method of Study

13 communities in the Honam region of Korea was considered for the survey. An analysis using a multiple logistic regression was applied to establish the cases for self-reported vaccination the influenza cases.

Finding of Study

Findings indicated that more than 80% of the older adults had been vaccinated within the past twelve months. Contributing factors included social, economic status, educational level, and other determinants of health.

Ethical consideration

Ethics during the study were observed to ensure the privacy of the people who participated in the study.

Conclusion

The findings indicated that the older adults in this region were safe from pneumonia due to the vaccination initiatives.

Elderly Population Growth

Ruttimann et al., (2013) cited that the older population can be increased if the right interventions are taken into consideration.

Background

The more elderly population is among the population that is bound to grow in future but have been plagued heavily by the pneumonia disease caused by the influenza viruses. The study seeks to find ways to help increase the population of 65 years and above.

Method of Study

By 2010 the WHO aimed to vaccinate at least 75% of the elderly population to help combat the illness but did not succeed. In 2011 the technical advisory team of the WHO recommended influenza vaccination for the Americans of age 65 years and above.

Findings of Study

Latin and American experts in the disease tried to determine how to manage pneumonia, and one of the recommendations from the panel was to perform a clinical test for people of age 65 and over showing signs of flu among other factors. It also supports the vaccination of the older adults as a preventive measure.

Ethical Consideration

Ethical consideration was made to ensure that all the information provided by the people who took part in the study was confidential.

Conclusion

The study showed that the pneumonia prevalence could be reduced if extensive vaccination can be done. The WHO used this study to ensure a widespread vaccination to the people above 65 years.

 

Work Cited

Assaad, U.El-Masri, I., Porhomayon, J., & El-Solh, A. A. (2012). Pneumonia immunization in older adults: a review of vaccine effectiveness and strategies. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 7(1), 453-461. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3496196/

Hottes, T. S., Skowronski, D. M., Hiebert, B., Janjua, N. Z., Roos, L. L., Van Caeseele, P., ... & De Serres, G. (2011). Influenza vaccine effectiveness in the elderly based on administrative databases: change in immunization habit as a marker for bias. PLoS One, 6(7), e22618. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3144220/

Jefferson, T., Di Pietrantonj, C., AlAnsary, L. A., Ferroni, E., Thorning, S., & Thomas, R. E. (2010). Vaccines for preventing influenza in the elderly. The Cochrane Library, 2010(2), 1-32. Retrieved from http://www.mrc.ac.za/cochrane/vaccines4prvntng_influenza.pdf

Lang, P. O., Mendes, A., Socquet, J., Assir, N., Govind, S., & Aspinall, R. (2012). The effectivenessof influenza vaccine in aging and older adults: comprehensive analysis of the evidence. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 7, 55-64. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292388/

Ruttimann, R. W., Bonvehi, P. E., Vilar-Compte, D., Isturiz, R. E., Labarca, J. A., & Vidal, E. I. (2013). Influenza among the elderly in the Americas: a consensus statement. Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica, 33(6), 446-452. Retrieved fromhttp://www.scielosp.org/pdf/rpsp/v33n6/10.pdf

Ryu, S. Y., Kim, S. H., Park, H. S., & Park, J. (2011). Influenza vaccination among adults 65 years or older: A 20092010 community health survey in the Honam region of Korea. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8(11), 4197-4206. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3228566/

 

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