The organizations for identification that actively engages in advocacy for the disabled in the UAE and China are ACPN, Al Noor, Huiling NGO, and Beijing Xingxingyu. They commenced operations at different times with the objective of improving the welfare of the disabled in the respective regions. ACPN qualifies as a trickle-down entity established in 2008 that serves at least 40, 000 annually in the UAE. Al Noor is another organization in the country that seeks to integrate the disabled into the community, but it operates as a grassroots agency. The organizations that operate in China are Huiling NGO, and Beijing Xingxingyu. Huiling NGO has as a trickle down model and Beijing Xingxingyu a grassroots organization. They both serve the disabled in undertakings related to advocacy (Crabtree, 2007, 49). As discussed, the paper explores the nature of operations of the NGO to facilitate categorization and examination of their strengths and weakness as well as the implication of policies in respective countries on the operations of the agencies.
Structure of organization
ACPN serves as a medical facility with a well elaborate structure in which the management influences the decision of the agency. It receives funding from well-wishers and has branches in several parts of the UAE making it a trickle down entity (Disabled World, 2017). The model of Al Noor is slightly different as it operates by exploiting a bottom-up approach in administration. The member of the public influences the decision of the agencies and they are legible to volunteer to serve at the organization. The NGO serves all with most operation concentrated in local levels.
Huiling NGO operates in China and serves as an educative center for children with disability. The NGO has branches in cities in the country and an elaborate administrative structure that qualifies it as a trickle down agency (Florian, 2010). The leadership influences most of the activities and unlike the case of Beijing Xingxingyu that operates as a grassroots agency. The latter allows voluntary participation of the public and organizes forums in line with the preferences of the target population. Beijing Xingxingyu qualifies as a grassroots agency because of the design of the programs and concentration of activities at the communal level.
Effects of the policies in UAE and China on the activities of the NGO
The laws implemented in the country constrain the process of registration for the organizations. The governments in the country through the ministry of social affairs monitor approach to operation and interaction among members thus making it harder steering grassroots activities liberally. The meetings of the organizations outside the country can only proceed with permission of the social affairs ministry. The requirement encourages operation as trickle down organization as opposed to grassroots entities on the presumption they can enhance rebellion against governance institutions in the country. The situation is almost similar in China with the single party state dictating terms for registration of local and international NGOs. The scrutiny of foreign agencies is strict thus limiting their engagements in the country.
Strengths and weaknesses of trickle-down effect and grassroots approach
The strengths of the trickle-down effect are that the organizations benefit not only the parties interested in its operations but also people indirectly engaged in its activities such as volunteers (Liasidou, 2013). The regulation authorities find its easier monitoring the operations of an organization exploiting the trickle-down effect. According to Gaad (2015, 130), the state can easily intercept an act of contravention of the policies of a nation such as the laws regulating the mode of solicitation of funds. The shortcomings of the models are that it assigns much accountability to the administration of the company while ignoring the duties of those served by the organization in steering the mission as stipulated (Disabilities Studies Quarterly, 2017). The organization requires vast amounts of resources monitoring operation in every part of the nations (Gaad and Almotairi, 2013, 287). The possibility of the management confronting lawsuits logged against the operations of the firm is also high. An interception in one area of operation can interfere with the entire structure of the organization.
The strengths of the grassroots model are that an organization can easily impact the target audience for the project in the shortest times possible (Barclay, 2011). The funds required for investing in the programs of the advocacy groups is not as higher as the case of trickle-down effect. The organization also has the advantage of soliciting funds from well-wishers to steer its duties. The entity can engage a person with a deeper understanding of the needs of the target population (Hsu and Hasmath, 2014, 516). It is also possible attaining flexibility in the design of the program especially when striving to use the organization to steers advocacy. The shortcoming of the structure is that the process of harmonization of the activities of the organization with that of larger governance entities is not easy (Constantine, Hage, Kindaichi, & Bryant, 2007). Before the decision, the administrators at the grassroots must realign operations in accordance with legislative requirements (Stein, 2010, 7). The approach to modification of the structures to suit the needs of the people can cause interference to the administrative structure in different regions.
Principles and policies that affect advocacy of organizations
The policy in the UAE that requires NGO to have 10 members to qualify for registration in many ways dictated the formulation of ACPN and Al Noor. The organization also solicits funding using a framework that aligns to the regulations in the country. Coordination with the ministry of social affairs is mandatory before lobbying through forums and public gatherings (Crabtree, 2007, 50). The demand for regular reporting about the progress of the agencies also restricts the deliberations of the agencies.China requires registration accordance with the legislation of the country and such creates some sense of bureaucracy. The reporting of the activities restricts flexibility in planning for the activities of the agency (United Nations, 2017). The strict government surveillance also halts flexibility in funding. The negative perception of the civil society in the nation also impeded the plans of grassroots agencies that seek to empower the disabled in the community.
Barclay, L., 2011 Justice and Disability: What Kind of Theorizing Is Needed?, Journal of Social Philosophy, 42 (3) pp. 273-287
Constantine, M., S. Hage, M. Kindaichi, & R. Bryant, 2007 Social Justice and Multicultural Issues: Implications for the Practice and Training of Counselors and Counseling Psychologists, Journal of Counseling & Development, 85 (1) pp. 24-29
Crabtree, S.A., 2007. Family responses to the social inclusion of children with developmental disabilities in the United Arab Emirates. Disability & Society, 22(1), pp.49-62.Disabilities Studies Quarterly. [Online](Updated10 June 2016) Available at: http://dsq-sds.org[Accessed 19 July 2017]
Disabled World, List of Disability Organizations. [Online](Updated 2004) Available at: http://www.disabled-world.com/disability/foundations/us-organizations.php [Accessed 19 July 2017]
Florian, L., 2010 Special Education in an Era of Inclusion: The End of Special Education or a New Beginning?, Psychology of Education Review, 34 (2) pp. 22-28
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Gaad, E., 2015. Look who's coming to school: the Emirati student voice in an interventionbased study on inclusion of learners with intellectual disabilities in Emirati mainstream government schools. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 15(2), pp.130-138.
Hsu, J.Y. and Hasmath, R., 2014. The local corporatist state and NGO relations in China. Journal of Contemporary China, 23(87), pp.516-534.
Liasidou, A., 2013 Intersectional understandings of disability and implications for a social justice reform agenda in education policy and practice, Disability & Society, 28 (3) pp. 299-312
Stein, M.A., 2010. China and disability rights. Loy. LA Int'l & Comp. L. Rev., 33, p.7.United Nations, #Envision2030: 17 goals to transform the world for persons with disabilities. [Online](Updated 2017) Available at: https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/envision2030.html[Accessed 19 July 2017]
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