Validity refers to how credible the research is and determines if the findings are genuine. Validity applies to the design selected for the study and the methods of the research (Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2013). Validity of data collection indicates that findings represent the phenomenon that one is measuring. There are three aspects of validity, and each has its strengths and weakness according to Cohen, Manion & Morrison(2013) and they include:Internal Validity
It refers to how well an experiment is done, especially concerning avoiding confounding variables from acting at the same time. A study with less chance of confounding has high internal validity.
Strength: high internal validly in our case would help us draw a strong conclusion regarding the existing relationship between the causal effects: breast cancer survival after chemotherapy and the independent variables PTSD, depression and cognitive impairment.
Limitation: involving tight controls can lead to highly artificial unnatural saturation, results are likely to reoccur outside the study, and it makes it difficult to generalize findings. In our case, controlling confounding factors such as environmental factors may cause the study to be highly manipulated hence producing unnatural results.
It is the degree to which the test measures what it claims or what it purports to be measuring, and in our case, we are establishing the relationship between breast cancer survivors and development of PTSD, depression and cognitive impairment after chemotherapy.
Strengths: it is valuable where there is a lot of subjectivity to concepts and that there is no acceptable unit of measurements to the constructs and they are open to debate.
Limitations: it gives room for hypothesis guessing the hypothesis hence altering the behavior. In our case when we guess that there is a significant relationship between cancer survivors and development of PTSD, depression and cognitive impairment after chemotherapy, the researcher is prone to evaluate the results based on the hypothesis developed.
It refers to the ability to generalize the results of the study based on studying situations and participants outside the study.
Strength: it allows the results to be generalized beyond the study. In this particular study, it might involve studying the cause and effect relationships based on existing research and develop broad conclusions.
Limitation: external validity allows extraneous variables onto the study and thus compromising the study. While internal validity limits are confounding factors, external validity might include factors such as environmental factors as risk factors of developing PTSD, depression and cognitive impairment and not just breast cancer, hence compromising the conclusions of the study.
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2013). Research Methods in Education. Routledge.
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