The studies about the two philosophers, Ibn Sina and Rousseau attempts to explain about the philosophical aspects in the educational field. They were most well known of the Muslim philosophers by different scholars. Rousseau paid his compliments to the philosophy of Plato and then rejected as being impractical because of the reasons of why the dangerous states of the society. Ibn wrote that a child should be sent to school from the age of six and learns primary education until they attain the age of fourteen. He also wrote they should be taught Qur'an, the metaphysics of Muslim and their ethics and the manual skills which referred to a diversity of the powers which were practical (Murphy, 2006). Ibn Sina termed secondary education as being the stage of schooling that involved specialization, where the pupils were to start to be given skills that were manual in spite of their social status. He also wrote that children at fourteen were supposed to be given a choice in order specialize in the subjects having their interest whether reading the manual skills, preaching, geometry, craftsmanship, medicine and other matters that were of their profession that they were to be interested in the pursuit of their career for their future. He noted that, at this age, it was the age of transition and there was the need to be flexible regarding the period of which the students were to develop since the emotional developments of a student depended on the subjects that were chosen by them (Noddings, 2010).
However, Rousseau had a different way of how he looked on the development of a child. Rousseau held on the reason that, there only a single developmental process which was familiar everyone in their development in education. The process was intrinsic, and the important manifestations of behaviors were as a result of curiosity. This was in contrast to Ibn philosophy of the active process which is as a derivation from the nature of the child. Rousseau was unique in that he recognized then addressed the potential of specific problems of legitimating teaching. He also advocated adults were always to remain truthful with their children and never to hide facts which are based on their authority for education that is purely significant physical coercion. He stated when the age of children attain twelve years they are referred to as being the free individuals in their continuing process (O'Connor, 2016). Rousseau wrote that all children were organisms that were flawlessly designed and were ready to learn from surroundings for them to grow to become the adults who were virtuous but when the society which is destructive and corrupt influence their behaviors, then they would fail to accomplish their objectives. Rousseau also advocated on the educational methods that were involving the removal of the child from the society or conditioning them through the environmental changes and set traps for them.
Ibn Sina viewed the education's vital role being the general growth of an individual either physically or mentally then followed the preparation of an individual for them to live in the society by choice of trade in accordance to his aptitudes. He stated that education would not disregard the physical development and all the things that are being disguised by the physical exercises, food, sleep and also cleanliness. He did not exclusively aim at the events at the intellectual level which increased the knowledge. His attention not only on the moral aspects alone but also aimed at the formation of the personality which was in the body, character, and mind. Additionally, he did not restrict tasks that involved education in the creation of a citizen who was complete, but instead saw training to prepare individuals for their professions and thus give way to social organization. He believed the society was built on the basis of cooperation and specialization of everyone in way profession or craft and through the services that were shared among individuals. On the contrary, Rousseau about his work about social contract claimed that the conditions of nature were harsh without the laws or morality and therefore there were good men as a result for the presence of the society. The man was prone to be frequently in the competition with his colleagues since he was to be more successful when he was facing the threats and by joining with other men who had an impetus to do the same. He also involved his fellow men to collectively form a presence of human presence known to be the society (Peters, 2010).
The views of Ibn Sina were also based on the making of a citizen who was upright and sound both in the body and even the mind, which then helped him to prepare for the intellectual and the practical works. Work which was intellectual was connected to the traditional and hypothetical sciences which Ibn Sina valued. He referred to industry and crafts as being the instruction type which required the professional preparation and interest. He also noted that the instructions and learning involve the practical skills such as carpentry and dying which acquired only the practice of the craft. However, looking at the essay of Rousseau about discourse on Arts and Sciences noted that advancement of science and arts were not that useful to humanity and therefore he proposed progress that involved knowledge which made the governments power and compressed the liberty of the individuals (Macallister, 2012). He concluded that the material progress was undermined by the possibilities of sincere friendship and thus replaced it with jealousy and fear. He also added that the declines of the ancient age were coinciding with growth and the data which were amongst them. Additionally, their days of poverty and ignorance too were the days that their strength and happiness However they believed in the Education being a necessary evil.
The philosophy of education system of Rousseau was on the basis of the principle that stated everything as if it came from the hand of God and was as a result of its influence on the degeneration of the society. He also emphasized about the traditional and the formal education as being humanmade and hence it was undesirable and became against the educational system at that time. He also believed in education as it developed the inner character of a child and was not particular about giving and also seeking the necessary knowledge. He argued that the part which was important in the role of education was that the whole world had neglected that of preparing children for them to receive the formal training. He stated that knowledge came from nature and man and regarded quality to be equal to a gift (Hare & Portelli, 2013). He added that life was contributed to the development of children. The hierarchy which is naturalistic on the objectives of education represented a reversal which was complete on the purpose of tradition and the purpose of the school mainly perfecting the mans powers which were highest through the study of literature, and classics. On the other hand, Ibn Sina viewed human beings as being created by God and was unable to live through their seclusion but needed the societies for them to survive, about his growth and also education. Ibn Sina stated that the human beings were differing from other animals and were not able for them to live well being isolated individuals that should be helped by another king of his.
Rousseau also stated that a child is born right and is free from all sins but after the manipulations of the society with time changes them. Since in the Christian perspective a child that has been born have the mortal crime, and as a result, they are oppressed. Rousseau then focused on the period of which a child develops the diverse ways and builds their characters. Rousseau stated that children had their place in progression for the life of an individual and thus man and child should be treated in their ways. He also emphasized about children having and therefore they are supposed to be interpreted in different ways unlike the adult humans being student should be given adequate freedom for them to grow on their own since at long last he would be the result of the societies. People were at all times looking for adults in the community without knowing what being a child entailed. Rousseau, therefore, felt the requirement of education by the children's demands (Mason, 2008). However, Ibn Sina referred the young age of a child as being the level of which it involved the development of sensory and motor systems of the body and also training on the moral and handling of emotions. Ibn Sina became much concerned about games at the young age and even their primary education. He demonstrated how the role of exercises in training was necessary for the place in the life of a child and explained about how practice changed as per the ages progressed and also the abilities of the child.
Rousseau philosophical views on education were also based on Naturalism. Philosophy of education at its development was based on assumptions that nature represented the reality wholeness. It was the concept which was a reality which was based on the kind of matter which was regarded as being supreme with mind being the operation of the brain which is made of matter. He saw nature as being the total system which explained all the existence that included the nature of human beings. The universe is also governed by the laws of nature which cannot be changed. Through our senses, we get the actual knowledge and thus works similar to the gateways through which knowledge becomes the method which helps in the study of nature. He also noted that the only thing that was lacking from the moment we are born was the gift of education (Juuso, 2007). Therefore, learning should ensure the natural processes which involve growth and the development of the brain. On the contrary, Ibn Sina viewed human beings are born as the result of natural nature, and they are either good or bad depending on nature, but they tend to good or evil and thus human being change and then adapt in accordance to influences that the environment their systems of education have. If they are habituated to crime, then they would turn to be evil and on the other hand if they are adapted to do good they become good. Ibn Sina philosophy says that if children are weaned and thus are their education and moral training to start before there is an attack and overcome by the morals which are to blame and have the morals which are objectionable. If the evil morals rapidly involve the children and prevailing and continue gaining influence over them they cannot separate themselves and struggle to fight them. Ibn emphasized by stating that moral characteristics that are either good or bad when acquired can change the ways of a human being (Dupuis & Gordon, 2010).
Analyzing the views with the present education modes, we see there were some things which are similar as were during their period. The two aspects of nature and child come out very strongly. In todays world, competition is at their best, and life is taken for granted and is sometimes misused. Rarely have people spent their time to bring to an end and be thankful for them. Children are also taught the subjects which are career based. Being attached to nature and leaving nature to guide the different processes is something that modern people are unwillingly ready to regard. Additionally, we see that Rousseau aimed much more at the groups which appeared to be rich; this is similar to the world of today. The poor, in the comparison to rich, are ones that still are somewhat in closer to nature. Rousseau felt that life had much to study and for him, nature was his best teacher. Rousseau intention was that nature would not compromise the education of a child but promote them (Enslin, Tjiattas & Todd, 2009...
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