Speech sound errors are common in developing young children. Early speech sound errors are linked to subsequent spelling, writing, reading and mathematical difficulties (Baker, Elise & McLeod, 2011). Children may acquire simple unmarked sounds before acquiring marked sounds that need complex constrictions. Therefore, speech sound disorders include difficulties in producing motor movement of speech sounds and problems associated with the linguistic representation of speech sounds (Mitchel & Smith-Packard, 2014). This paper lists the 12 types of sound disorders and group them by the systems (respiration, phonation, resonation, and articulation) that has broken down the speech sounds.
Speech sound disorders include:
Articulation disorder: It refers to errors in speech sounds by leaving out, mispronunciation or substitution of the sound.
Phonological delay: It happens when a childs speech output does not develop enough to produce all sound necessary for normal speech in younger children.
Consistent deviant phonological disorder: It refers to both typical and unusual errors that impairs the childs understanding of the phonological system of the adults.
Inconsistent Speech Disorder: A child experiences non-development error types and delays in production of single words.
Childhood Apraxia of Speech: Children may have deviant production patterns of speech, which sound the same as that of children with inconsistent disorder.
Motor Speech Disorders: It involves speech difficulties that result from childhood apraxia and dysarthrias speech.
Structurally-based Speech Sound Disorders: This include problem with speech that are linked to facial or head anatomy differences where there may be craniofacial differences or misaligned teeth associated with particular syndromes.
Speech Sound Disorders linked to conditions and syndromes: These includes speech problems linked to conditions and syndromes such as galactosemia, hearing impairment or Down syndrome.
Dysarthria: This is a speech Sound disorder that results from incoordination, weakness or paralysis of the speech musculature that cause difficulties in speech.
Apraxia: It leads to motor disturbance of the motor components that causes accurate sequence of movements required to produce speech sounds.
The 12 types of sound disorders can be grouped into the following systems that has broken down the speech sounds.
Dysarthria, apraxia and motor Speech Disorders can be grouped in this system because they are a group of speech disorders resulting from neuromuscular impairment in respiration, whereby there is inadequate breath support that leads to uncoordinated, weak and slow muscle activity that is used in breathing during speech.
Articulation disorder, phonological delay and consistent deviant phonological disorder are grouped in this system because they are cause by interruption in phonation through variations in intensity, pitch or harsh voice when producing sound in the larynx.
Structurally-based Speech Sound Disorders, Inconsistent Speech Disorder and Speech Sound Disorders linked to conditions and syndromes can be grouped into this system because they are caused when sound is selectively amplified by changing the shape, size and number of cavities used in producing sound.
Articulation disorder, phonological delay and Dysarthria are found in this system because they are caused when the movement of speech structures leads to disorganized phonological system or difficulties in producing sound.
Each level of speech sound disorder is caused by respiration, phonation, resonation, and articulation that has broken down the speech sounds. However, some speech substitutions and omissions may occur as a result of accent or dialect. Treating speech sound disorder may target classes of sound that helps discriminate between incorrect and correct production of sound (Baker, Elise & McLeod, 2011).
Mitchel, M., & Smith-Packard, B. (2014, July 6). Understanding Speech Sound Disorders: Is It Phonological Disorder or Apraxia? Retrieved from https://simonsvipconnect.org/files/WEB-understanding_speech_sound_disorders-_mitchel.pdf.
Baker, Elise & McLeod, Sharynne (2011). Evidence-Based Practice for Children With Speech Sound Disorders: Part 1 Narrative Review. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 42, 102-139
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