The extent at which the scientists are making discoveries nowadays are pretty amazing. Nearly, every day, humanity discoveries that will lead to contention on the confirmation or denial of the existing understanding of the universe. Although, there are existing mysteries that astronauts are yet to solve, among them being the black holes, although the most known and popular space phenomenon, it is one of the least researched heavenly body (Hawking, 2016). The following paper will report on the existence of the black hole, the mystery surrounding it and its characteristics.
In the astronaut perspective, the black hole refers to the region of space object that possesses an extreme density and intense gravitation field that no radiation or matter can even escape. They can only be visible with special devices because there is no light at the center where the black hole is located at, such devices include space telescope alongside other special gadgets. With the devices, one can also observe the stars as well as the materials that they are much adjacent to the black holes. Albert Einstein has been recognized for his noble research in predicting this phenomenon while in 1967, the name black hole was given by John Wheeler, however, it was until 1971, when the discovery of black hole was made (What Is a Black Hole? 2017).
One may wonder, how did the black hole come into existence? It is thought that primordial black holes developed in the early universe, soon after the big bang. When the big star burns its last fuel, it began collapsing under its own mass, declining in on itself till it shrinks to a something smaller than it initial size, though maintaining its mass- the stellar black hole (Al-Khalili, 2011, p.56). It is yet to be established the particular objects or materials that are inside the black holes.
There is a boundary inside the black hole, referred to as the event horizon. This is the part where the gravity is much stronger to drag the light back, hence preventing it escaping. Since there is nothing that can travel quite faster as compared to light, also the rest of the things will be dragged back also (Sipiera, 1997, p.115). The fall through the event horizon is somehow compared to the going over "Niagra Falls in a canoe. Let us take an example, when you are on top of the falls, you can go by paddling fast enough, although once you get over the edge, you get lost. The way back is next to impossible. The current becomes faster as you get close to the falls, this is because it pulls on the from t the canoe, more than the back. This increases the danger of the canoe being pulled apart. All that is similar to the black holes. On the opposite side of the black holes event horizontal, the gravitation pull of the black hole is much stronger, such that, for an object to escape, it has to move so fast than the speed of the light, something that most of the physicists claim that is impossible (Sipiera, 1997, p.160).
The most unsolved and fascinating mystery of the universe is the activities that go on in the black hole (Into a Black Hole, 2017). This questioned has puzzled scientist following decades now, following their earlier hypothesized statements on the existence of the black holes, mainly because there was really no manner at which one might study them. Similar to the manner at which the light the light is trapped in a black hole, so to do Electromagnetic Radiation and X-Rays, the signals that modern telescopes identify to "see" the universe. Although, following numerous decades, scientists realize that thy can indirectly trace black holes instead of attempting to detect the black hole.
It is perceived by the scientists that supermassive black holes made at the simultaneous time with Galaxy are in. The supermassive black hole structural size is similar to the mass of the galaxy. In the recent film, Interstellar gives a fictional expectation when one falls into the black hole. Some believe that the black holes are a predicted wormhole used by other parts if the Universe. In either way, the amazing fact about the black holes is how they deform space ad time. It is argued that if one falls into the back hole. Then the movement will be slowing down, only if it eventually freezes. Additionally, Stephen Hawking contends that the phenomenal gravity if a black hole, time will look like pass as usual, and with respect, the individual will not be aware of any particular distortions either (Sipiera, 1997, p.186).
One might ask, what will happen of the black hole gets closer to the earth? It is found that the Black holes cannot travel around the space. Therefore, since the black hole cannot be close enough to the solar systems to absorb the planets, there should be no fear that the black hole will interfere with the nature of the earth. However, if we view the same case in a theoretical manner, if the black hole, takes similar mass to that of the sun, and assume its position, there will be nothing taking place. The similar mass is equivalent to the gravity, in this case, the planets of the Solar System would maintain their orbiting around the black hole assuming nothing took place (Grib & Pavlov, 2009 p. 259-260).
Another contentious question among the astronauts is whether there are possibilities for the Sun to change into black hole? Such phenomenon can be explained that because the sun lacks the adequate mass to fall into the black hole. For this matter, in the coming billion years, the time when the Sun will be approaching its end of life, it is believed that it will change into the red giant star. Later, when its final fuel' will get exhausted it will shrink off its external layer into a planetary nebula, which is a glowing ring of gas. Eventually, the remaining part of the sun will cool into a white dwarf star (Begelman & Rees, 2009, 45).
How is NASA studying Black Holes? The astronauts at NASA are studying the Black holes using the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which is a spacecraft instrument, it is used alongside the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, and without forgetting the satellite. In 2008 the Fermi launched an observing gamma-rays, which is the most energetic kind if light, which was pursuing in searching of the supermassive black holes as well as other astronomical phenomena (Al-Khalili, 2011, p.70).
Decisively, Black holes are pretty space phenomenon, possess mysterious properties. However, described and predicted several centuries ago, they still one of the scientists largest mysteries. As it originated for the collapsed stars, the black holes have strong gravity, such that they have the strength of distorting the space as well as time. Although, it is a relief that the earth is free from the danger of being engulfed in the black hole.
Al-Khalili, J., 2011. Black Holes, Wormholes and Time Machines. CRC Press.
Begelman, M. and Rees, M., 2009. Gravity's fatal attraction: black holes in the universe. Cambridge University Press.
Grib, A.A.E. and Pavlov, Y.V., 2009. Is it possible to see the infinite future of the Universe when falling into a black hole? Physics-Uspekhi, 52(3), pp.257-261.
Hawking, S. (2016). Black Holes. Bantam.
Into a Black Hole. (2017). Stephen Hawking. Retrieved 22 June 2017, from http://www.hawking.org.uk/into-a-black-hole.htmlSipiera, P.P., 1997. Black Holes. Childrens Press.
NASA. (2017). What Is a Black Hole?. [online] Available at: https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/5-8/features/nasa-knows/what-is-a-black-hole-58.html [Accessed 22 Jun. 2017].
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