Paper Example on Social, Psychological and Physical Changes of Elderly People

Published: 2021-07-01
732 words
3 pages
7 min to read
Boston College
Type of paper: 
Course work
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Physical Changes

Aging is a process of slow change over time that is most evident in old people. The rate of physical changes manifestation is contingent upon lifestyle environmental factors as well as genetics. Therefore as we age, our bones and muscles begin to shrink. The shrinkage is as a result of bone marrow disappearing from the limbs and also resulting in the reduction in both the blood cells and platelets. The old people experience a loss in muscle tissues. The consequence of shrinkage in bones and muscles makes old people brittle and frail, and this may cause disability. The skin of old people begins to form wrinkles and spots between the age of forty and forty-five. The layer of fat found in the skin becomes thin and therefore there is less sweating. As a result, the skin becomes inelastic, dry and less tolerant to bruises and cuts. Moreover, the hairs of old people who are over fifty years begin to thin and turn from black to gray. The hairline also reduces although this depends on different ethnicities and individuals.

Psychological Changes

Old people are likely to encounter mental health problems as they progress with old age. Such disorders include depression that leads to decreased appetite, feelings of hopelessness and lack of motivation. Depression in old people also affects social relationships. Old people suffer from various anxiety disorders which include but not limited to post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder and phobia. Such anxiety causes distress and thereby interfering with the day to day activities of the old people. Additionally, old people suffer from insomnia that is accompanied by many periods of active dreams that are known as rapid eye movement REM as well as dreamless sleep.

Intellectual Changes

As older adults progress in old age, there are several mental changes that they go through. For example, there is a decline in the speed at which they complete certain tasks. Also, many old people complain about memory loss and therefore not being able to remember some things and certain events. Moreover, old people tend to learn very slowly and perform poorly in tasks that involve critical thinking and imagination.

Sociological Changes

Old people tend to have smaller social circles and a reduced interaction and undertake few social roles in the society like church duties. With advancement in age, people increase individuality and are therefore not easily influenced by social norms and societal expectations. Also, old people lose independence as they advance in age and are hence forced to rely on help from their family members. Some of these old people are usually reluctant to ask for small favors.

Leadership Considerations

Different leadership considerations are considered important in the implementation with well-ageing individuals and people with disabilities. The opinion-type leadership style is considered most important in that constitutes of the leadership style of engaging with people at the institution encouraging them with beliefs and advice on how to approach life. There are leadership considerations that entail that whatever is decided is implemented in due time. Additionally, there is a leadership consideration that ensures that there is support, resistance, and marketing that ensures that the institution changes are facilitated in the organization.

Therapeutic Interventions

It is necessary to design interventions that can help avert stress in old people that are generated by social detachments and seclusion. Homes for the elderly people should come up with coping skills for reducing stress among the old people. For example, the old should be encouraged to participate in physical exercises and games with their peers. For this to happen, the homes for the aged have to invest in games and sports facilities. Old people are normally abused in the home for the aged. There ought to be laws formulated to protect such vulnerable people. For example, there should be easier ways to report complaints about breach of code involving cases where the old people with or without disability have been abused. Additionally, some elderly people are at a risk of domestic abuse by their family. Family courts should be improved to better protect the rights of such vulnerable people by appointing representatives to apply on behalf of the old people who lack the capacity to protect themselves.


In everyday life, elderly people demonstrate social, psychological and physical changes in their lives as compared to younger people. Therefore, it is important that these changes were happening are better monitored with better leadership and therapeutic interventions.


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