During and after Reconstruction, the United States transitioned to industrial capitalism. Describe this process. What consequences emerged from this transition, in the North, South, and in the West? What types of reformers pushed back against these consequences? Using at least two specific groups, discuss examples of responses to industrialization in the Gilded Age.
Industrial capitalism is that process in which social and economic system in which trade, capital, and industry are privately operated and controlled for a profit. The property is privately protected and owned by the laws that govern the rule of law. Thus, under this process of industrial capitalism, were are looking at that period in which some persons in the community begun procuring property privately. As a result of the continued operation of industrial capitalism, some consequences emerged from this transition, in the North, South, and in the West and they included; led to budget deficits that came about as a result of rising social costs. The depreciation of infrastructure due to insufficient investments on them. There was evidenced initial underperformances in tax revenues that was essential in meeting the advanced industrial capitalist societies' social needs. Inflated nominal costs that distorted labor markets and bloating the nominal costs. Corruption rose substantially on corporate governance that originated from considerable flows of principal investments into capital instruments that were being used to store future social security. The reformers who pushed back against the consequences were the press, labor unions, anarchism and socialism that included Reverand Lyon, August Spies, Mary Elizabeth Lease, Pullman Strikers and Edward Bellamy among others. Among the responses that cropped up during the industrialization in the Gilded Age included desperation versus conspicuous consumption. The desperate workers and their families spearheaded significant strikes against the conspicuous uses demanding for public work. Robber Barons equally took his course that led him to pursue his freedom and nick it as an opportunity to follow economic interest minus governmental regulations to workers who had a believer in their liberty to lay collective efforts that will create opportunities that were seen as safe opportunities to ordinary Americans.
In the late nineteenth century, patterns of immigration began to substantially shift in the United States. Describe the experience of immigrants arriving to the US, on both the east and west coast. What populations typically arrived where, and how were they treated upon arrival? Finally, what restrictionsboth prior to and after World War Iwere placed upon immigration, and what consequences did those restrictions have?
The new arrival immigrants to the US on both the West and East Coast is that they lived in the urban centers. Most of them after settling down in these urban areas, they resulted in looking for jobs that were lowly paying. Most of the immigrants to the United States typically arrived through several ports. The ones that came from Europe used East Coast facilities, Asians utilized West Coast centers. But New York recorded the highest entry of 70% of all immigrants. The majority of the population comprised of energetic young men and women who could work to earn a living. The immigrants upon arriving in the US, some of the Asian immigrants encountered prejudice as compared to other European immigrants. Chines were turned away. Others found greater political freedom upon passing and inspected on Ellis Island and Angel Island. Among the restrictions placed on immigrants prior and after World War II included imposing a first numerical limit that was permanent on immigration. They introduced the national foundation of the quota system. The total immigration annually was capped at 150000 and laborers of Asiatic nations were debarred, but exceptions were rendered on their professionals, students, and clergy. The consequences of these restrictions included; the restriction led to most immigrants mainly of Jews and Asian background barred from entering the US. The restriction of limited quotas imposed on German Jews, French, European Jews, and Polish had a devastating impact on them as they could not obtain visas. In the national quotas, family members of all citizens of US were never included in quota numbers thus leading the women not to be accorded equal status.
Progressivism played a prominent role in patterns of life in the early twentieth century. What was Progressivism? Who were the Progressives, what were their origins, and what were they trying to accomplish? Using at least two specific examples, assess the motivations behind Progressive reform and describe some of the resulting consequences of the movement.
The thought of progressivism speaks of the belief that the people and government stand-in on its behalf can be employed to address inequities, problems, and inequalities facing the nation. Thus, progressivism is seen to be a reform development linked to a response of an aspiration to improve life, shape the existing community, make changes to a moderate political arena and social improvements using the action from the government, improve democracy and help in strengthening social justice. The progressives were the African Americans, union leaders, feminists and Protestant church leaders. The progressive origins began in the 1890s for state reforms. It picked up momentum nationally with middle-class reformers, Theodore Roosevelt among others who were eager to fine-tune to the contemporary times. The progressivism and other Americans knew what was going on in their country in that changing times. The nation had become a nation of ethnicity that was a mixture. The middle-class people were alarmed at the widening income gap and corruption, women suffrage and Jim Crows laws hence wanted national state reforms that will offer them better lives. The consequences of progressive were; politically, it led to party primaries, votes of women, split between Republican Party and decline of political machines. Socially, it led to births being controlled, settlement of social work and houses and laws enacted protecting the workers.
The Versailles Treaty ending World War I was the product of extensive debate. What provisions did the Versailles treaty make? How did Versailles Treaty compare to Woodrow Wilson's "Fourteen Points"? What consequences emerged as a result of the signing of the treaty?
The provisions were ratified in 1919. The provisions included blaming Germany for instigating World War I. The treaty demanded Germany to concede territory, return of Saar and Alsace-Lorraine to France, Belgium to be given Eupen- Malmedy, the district of Hultschin to Czechoslovakia. Demilitarization of Rhineland. A future union between Austria and Germany was not allowed and no permission to League of Nations given. The War Guilt Clause was passed that forced Germany to admit to shoulder the responsibility of the damage that resulted from the war. The Versailles Treaty compared against Woodrow Wilson is that Wilson was solely focused on disseminating democracy while trying to reform the world in a way that no possible war will erupt in future. On the other hand, Versailles Treaty seems to depict Wilson goals as obstacles to getting justice for the rest of the world over the war Germany themselves ignited. The consequences that emerged after signing Versailles Treaty included; Austria- Hungry being split thus leading to Yugoslavia being created. Finland, Czechoslovakia, Latvia, and Lithuania got their independence. All Turkish and German colonies were whisked away and regrouped under Allied control. Poland gained its independence and given a route or corridor to the sea that cut the Germany land into pieces of two. And finally, Alsace Lorraine was returned to France from territories of Germany.
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