Political culture is the pattern, peoples attitude and orientation to politics among individuals of a political system,this culture is a part of society's large culture. Political culture is the orientation pattern to object of politics amongst member of the nation.These objects may be Parliament and political parties or tangible aspect of a given country's political life example history.Therefore political culture is understood in view of community's rituals and political practices.It comprises of perspectives,habits and attitudes that influences a given political life.However political culture of a country changes with time where the change is a product of social-economic and political processes.
Political culture in Russia
(Tismaneanu, 1995) Traditionally Russia's civil society were regarded as anemic.The state were ubiquitous and omnipotent.Therefore this states were excaberbated by october evolution of mythocratic and partocratic state that affected walks of life. Things changed however during Nikita's liberation and modernization period,w hen civil society's bud surfaced, they were almost congealed,t his led to emerge of independence life society that led to social, cultural transformations that is evident up to date.This however led top the rise of civil society.This revolution has been swept away since 1991 but there state are fluid in shape up to date.
Throughout history, there has been a dominant strain in Russia's political thought that is a conservatism that has led to a centralized authority that is strong. (Pipes, 2007) In this book argued that Russia has been resuscitated and is founded by Autocracy.Russia has political, cultural symbols that focus on the meaning of behavior. The importance of this symbols is seen in three levels, concept of new Soviet man the failure that failed to form in Russia.Nearly all area of private life(religious worship or village prose work or writers).Russia has preserved alternative religion private pockets, national and historical identity.This led to the effort of the regime to unravel the past, therefore, replacing this with new soviet.This aspect however clearly demonstrates and explains the popularity of symbols that are prerevolutionary that includes the national flag of Russia tricolor.Blue and a white flag representing St.Andrews flag, the eagle that is two-headed, St George emblem, Christ the Savior church and Leningrad"s to St.petersburg rechristening after communist rule for more than three years.
Russia church-state relation has also been a political culture where since USSR fall about quarter century, Russia has experienced resurgence of Orthodox church which has Influenced by Russians political and public life.Regarding the fact that the church is the only surviving public institution since Soviet rule and it serves to bring together Russians to the Pre-revolutionary national history and culture.The church to state relations began with Gorbachev who was in charge of new administrative building construction that use to oversee restoration tasks.He represented a virtual change in state attitude to church in Soviet life.Political culture of Turkey
Turkeys political culture and change may be explained in three scope that includes the Islamic religion, military Regime, and democratic transition Turkeys democratic constitutionalism started after war II.Where in 1946 there was a multiparty election.Since that transition turkey has had Three military coups.The first intervention of military brought about constitution birth.The second compelled adoption of constitution amendment and the last intervention brought about the rise of the constitution of the Turkish republic.This intervention of military has not affected democracy commitment that has led to the hallmark of the political culture of Turkey since 1950's.In spite of this constitutional changes, the current mode of political contest remains multipartyism.In political culture terms in Turkey, there is a belief in the legitimacy of democracy.
Turkey adopted constitutional packages where the national assembly of Turkey approved amendments that sought to improve freedom of speech and eliminate the death penalty.In 2002 the mission was passed to AKP which was regarded as Islamist party.An election was held, and AKP party was declared the winner.This led to the Islamic party in Turkey to gain ground.
(Greenberg, 2009) Defined political socialization as the process in which a person acquires values, beliefs, and attitude that relates to a political system of his country and to the role as a citizen in that political given system.The political at Political socialization is a field of political science. It involves all the processes through which attitude is shaped by associations, interest group, and economic group of a nation.The individual develops political opinions and beliefs which affects their behavior in the social sphere. For instance, John is a supporter of the Democratic Party. He did not just join the party by accident. Instead, throughout his life, he has learned and developed the political beliefs that allow him to align with the principles of the party. Factors that affect political socialization include family, media, religious beliefs, work environments, political parties, interest groups and social environments of people (Niemi & Sobieszek,1977).Political Socialization in Russia
The modern Russia has seen a lot of transformation in its political socialization and even the type of government that is applied. The family remains to be the most influential agent of political socialization. A child born in a politically active a family grows up sharing the same views as everyone else in the family. The Russian schools do not allow the teaching of politics. The state wants to limit the political influence on the children especially by studying external political cultures. Russia has no official statistics on the religious institutions. The state prohibited the need for the citizens to share their religious affiliations (Almond & Verba, 2015). Though unofficially, the two religious groups common in Russia are Islam and Orthodoxy.However, in Russia economic group of trade unions influences policymaking that benefits them through peaceful protests and strikes.
Mass media has played a key role in Russia political socialization.Newspapers have a huge presence in Russia with a circulation of 8.3 billion copies annually.Russia is boosting as the leading newspaper distributor in the world.However, Television is the popular source of information.Political Socialization in Turkey
When the Ataturk regime founded the Republic of Turkey in the country, the caliphate was ended and secular republic adapted in 1923. There were a lot of socio-economic reforms that were set to influence the people by raising their living standards and promoting civilization, agriculture and industrialization. There are also draconian religious reforms that allow people the freedom to choose their own religion. A national language, history and education reforms also form part of the tools that the Ataturk regime uses to promote political socialization in the country (Almond & Verba, 2015).
Tismaneanu, V. (1995). Political culture and civil society in Russia and the new states of Eurasia.
Armonk (N.Y.): M.E. Sharpe, p.4.
Greenberg, E. (2009). Political socialization. New Brunswick: Transaction publishers, p.3. Niemi, R. G., & Sobieszek, B. I. (1977). Political Socialization. Annual Review of Sociology, 3(1), 209-233.
Almond, G. A., & Verba, S. (2015). The civic culture: Political attitudes and democracy in five nations. Princeton university press.
Pipes, R. (2007). Russian conservatism and its critics. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
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