Paper Example on Obesity Among Latino Adults in Boston

Published: 2021-06-23 22:03:05
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Logic models can typically be defined as flow-charts that can show the relationship between various contextual factors: inputs, processes, and outcomes. They are designed in such a manner that they are read from left to right, for a reader to be able to understand the relationship or see the pathway between the different components that make up the Logic models.

The logic model is an important tool particularly for the health professionals and health educators because it maps out the structure and the focus of the program that will be used to address a certain health problem that is affecting a particular community. Health professionals who use logic models to address certain health problems can create a comprehensive framework showing the way an organization will develop a certain program. It also shows the expected outcomes of the program. Logic models use an if-then sequence which shows that; if a certain action is used to address a certain health problem, then the program developers over a certain period will expect a certain outcome. The key elements of a logic model are inputs, outputs, outcomes, and impact. To develop these elements of the logic model, it is important to assess the needs of the programs that have been established, and this is known as Situations.

The inputs in the Logic model refer to the resources that will ensure that the program is successful. Examples of inputs that are used include money, space, staff, volunteers, and materials. The outputs refer to the participants and program activities which will be used to effect the change that is needed in that community. The participants include clients, decision-makers and even agencies. On the other hand, the program activities refer to the workshops and lesson plans that will be used in the program. Outcomes refer to the benefits that will be realized in the program. They are normally divided into:

Short-term outcomes which refer to the learning processes that will be achieved in the program such as increasing the awareness and knowledge of the people or community who have a certain health problem such as obesity.

Medium term outcomes refer to the actions or behavior changes that the affected community will develop.

The long-term outcomes refer to the changes in the health status as a result of the implementation of the program.

The impact section of the logic model refers to the effect the program has had on the learners, families and the community as a whole.

Logic models are important for researchers because they usually provide a global perspective of the program, and this will ensure that the program planners can identify and measure the expected level of change in a specific population. It ensures that the program planners develop a plan whereby; they will use the allocated or granted funding where it will be most effective. It also acts as an informative platform for the relevant stakeholders about the processes of the program, and it eventually leads to collaboration.

Review of a Study that Employed the Logic Model

Obesity is a prevalent problem in the United States, and it has been established that about 78 million adults and 13 million children are considered to be obese (American Hearts Association, 2017). One of the precursors of adult obesity is adolescent obesity. There have been various programs that have been designed using the Logic model to address childhood obesity in the country such as the Lets Move campaign. It was launched by Michelle Obama in 2010 to reduce childhood obesity, and encourage a healthy lifestyle among the children in the USA (Wojcicki & Heyman, 2010. The overall goal of the program is to solve the challenge of childhood obesity and ensure that the children who are born today will become adults who have a healthy weight. The strategies that are used in the campaign include: encouraging children to eat healthier foods at schools and encourage them to engage in more physical activities to reduce their chances of becoming obese. The Lets Move campaign used the logic model to describe its inputs (children and children educators), activities, outcomes, and impact. In fact, it is important to point out that the campaign hopes to reduce childhood obesity to 5% by 2030(Wojcicki & Heyman, 2010). It emphasizes on healthy eating and physical activities as ideal strategies to reduce childhood obesity.

The health topic that I have chosen is Obesity among Latino adults in Boston. My interest in this particular subject is raised from the fact that; even though they have been multiple strides to improving the health status of the people of Boston such as mortality rates in the region reducing steadily over the past 10 years, the problem of obesity, especially among the minority populations, is still quite prevalent in the region (Corona, Flores, & Arab, 2015). The obesity rate among the Hispanic adults in the region is high. My intended audience is adults of between the ages of 40 to >65 years. Most of the health programs that have been initiated in Boston have been individual-based programs that focus on individual change of attitude and improvement of knowledge. My aim is to show both the community that I will be focusing on and health educators who focus on obesity on the relation of social status and obesity. It is important to note that our individual health is influenced by external forces such as the locality we live in, our jobs, our access to health information, risks, and support systems.

The Latino community seems to be disadvantaged, and that is why there is a high prevalence of adult Latinos who are obese. My focus in this study is to show adult Latinos on how the lives that they lead including the foods they regularly consume, the jobs they hold, and their social interactions increase the risk of them becoming obese (Isasi et al., 2015). In addition to that; I will show them how they can reduce their chances of becoming obese, which can lead them to develop multiple chronic diseases by changing their lifestyles and attitudes toward various foods and activities. Just like the Lets Move campaign, this logic model will focus on ensuring that adult Latinos eat healthy food products, and they have become more physically active and engaged.

SITUATIONS

Health Problem, Why it is a Problem, and Populations Impacted

It is estimated that two out of three adults are considered to be overweight or obese. A person who is obese or overweight risks developing various health problems that are associated with this condition. It is estimated that approximately 30 preventable diseases such as Type 2 diabetes, certain types of cancers, arthritis, heart attacks and even strokes are associated with being obese as an adult.

Boston, Massachusetts area is facing a challenge when it comes to tackling the obesity issue in the region. The overall adult obesity rate in Boston is 24%. According to the CDC, obesity is more prevalent in certain racial and ethnic groups in the region than others. It established that the obesity rates among the Black and Latino/Hispanic adults are 35.9% and 32.4% respectively, which approximately twice the obesity rate among the white adults, which is 23%. Also, the obesity rate is highest among the age group of 45-64 (29.9%), and lowest among adults who are in the age group of 18-25 (10.6%) (Isasi et al., 2015).

Various factors have been seen to be the reason as to why there is a high disproportionality regarding obesity rates among different races and ethnic groups; and in particular, why it is extremely high among the Latino communities. It is important to point out that one of the primary factors that promote high obesity rates among the Latinos is their economic status (Kaplan et al., 2014). Most Latinos in the area have low-paying jobs, meaning that they live in poor and racially segregated neighborhoods. These neighborhoods are specifically targeted by fast food joints to distribute and promote unhealthy foods. Residents living such communities can access fast food joints much easier than supermarkets and grocery shops that provide healthier options because of the proximity of the fast food joints and access to cheaper food. In most of these neighborhoods, they lack access to safe, well-maintained, recreational facilities that they can access to engage in physical activities such as exercising or participating in a certain sport such as basketball.

As it was stated before, most of the Latino people are employed in low-paying jobs, and this means that they have to work more shifts or have more than one job to get a decent pay. Therefore, they have no time to engage in physical activities or even for some cook at home, relying on fast food products. For instance, instead of a person riding a bicycle to work or walk if it is not far, the individual may prefer to board a train or bus to ensure that he does not arrive late at work or save time (Qi et al., 2015). In addition to that; they are more likely to be stressed because of the way they live, working different jobs, and even racial cues that are meant to undermine their self-esteem. The stress will lead to their hormones producing extra fat around the waist, and it eventually increases their chances of developing chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes. They also have low access to quality health care services. Even in regions that the health care services are available, most people (Latinos) will not go for regular check-ups because they do not see the need to access healthcare services if they are not sick (Wojcicki & Heyman, 2010). On the other hand, some of the people may not be willing to go to the hospital for check-ups because they feel they will be mistreated because of their race and ethnic group, and some of them are unable to express themselves or understand English properly.

The high obesity rate among the Latinos has affected their health as most of them have a high risk of being diagnosed with various chronic conditions. According to the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, out of the top ten leading causes of death among the Latinos, six of them are obesity-related conditions. These are Cancer, Heart Disease, Diabetes, Stroke, Nephritis and Chronic Liver disease (Wojcicki & Heyman, 2010).

Programs that Address Obesity in the Region

The Hubway is a bicycle sharing system that was launched in Boston, Massachusetts in 2011 by the then mayor the late Thomas Menino. As of 2014, physicians at Boston Medical Center began prescribing Hubway bikes as an alternative means of transportation, through the Prescribe-a-Bike program. The new partnership increased access to affordable transportation for low-income Boston residents, while at the same time improving their health. The bike program is meant for all the Boston residents, with a particular emphasis on the low-income areas. It is important to note that 13 of the 90 stations in the area are located in low-income neighborhoods.

The program works in the following manner; a doctor will recommend or prescribe a patient to the Hubway program for membership purposes. The patient will then pay $5 for the annual membership, and this allows him or her to have an unlimited number of bicycle trips using the Hubway program. However, the individual has to use the bicycle for 30 minutes or less per trip.

The program was developed to deal with the obesity problem that is currently being experienced in the Boston area, especially among the low-income residents in the region. One of the most effective ways of dealing with obesity is increasing physical activity among the high-risk people. This can be achieved if the people regularly ride bicycles for 30 minutes or less. By regularly conducting exercises, they will improve their overal...

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