Paper Example on Mind and Body Problem

Published: 2021-06-29
916 words
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University of California, Santa Barbara
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Course work
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Great philosophers from Descartes to Kripke have demonstrated impeccable efforts in offering the world with the understanding of the modern and contemporary philosophy, which is the mind-body problem. From the views of Descartes' Substance Dualism, Malebranche's occasionalism, Spinoza's Dual Aspect Monism, Leibniz' Monadology and Gilbert Ryle's monism, a possible view that emerges is that mind and consciousness are self-awareness. The mind-body problem holds that the brain is physical (Ishikawo, 2017, p.34). In this case, if the mind is physical, human beings cannot be able to see, and if we cannot see the physicality of the mind, then it becomes evident that we cannot see its interaction with the body. If the mind is not physical, there is no way it can interact with the body.

A closer look at the mind and body problem shows that the best approach for providing its explanation is dualism. Dualism puts more emphasis on the mind and says that information is fundamentally different from the brain. Based on the fact that the universe keeps on creating new information, it becomes a significant and understandable difference through the rearrangement of the existing matter.

According to Leibniz, the solution to the mind and body problem is based on the fact that mind and body operate together amicably in a complete harmony in spite the fact that they are independent. In his opinion, Leibniz thought that the physical and mental realism are energy and not material. In my opinion, this reasoning would not be persuasive in 2017 based on the fact that mind exists because of the human awareness. The knowledge is therefore gained through awareness.

Question 2: Hume gives a Theory of Ideas

The theory of ideas offers Hume with the fundamental elements of his science of man. According to Hume, human thoughts and feeling are perceptions. Two distinctions navigate through one another and include the impressions vs. ideas and simple vs. complex. The first three sections are talking about impressions and ideas and widely concerns thinking in the sense of having a feeling or thought. Many have regarded Humes idea as an empiricist theory.

As an empiricist, Hume begins with an epistemological foundation which is tremendously the same as Berkeleys. However, Hume considerably embraces the empiricist's program without Berkeleys rationalist's retention of what considerably contributes to the innate concepts. According to him, a major difference that exists between the idea of impressions and ideas is the degree of vivacity.

To illustrate this, he claims that every idea in mind can only originate by copying some previous impressions. Why is it then that we cannot have certainty in our beliefs about the world? About this, Hume argues that there is no contradiction in denying the casual connections and therefore as human beings, it is impossible to do so through ideas and relations. Based on the fact that there are no simple impressions of cause and effects, these terms may appear meaningless, and there is nothing in them that goes beyond the observations. Hume's skeptical analysis about causal necessity reconciles with science in 2017. For example, Newton's scientific method offers Hume with a path for introducing the experimental method into his investigation of the mind. We must, therefore, rely on the experience and observation, and because the inquiry about the human nature involves the questions of fact and not abstract science.

Question 3:

Prompted by the Hulmes skepticism, Kant offers explanations of whether and how metaphysics is possible. In his attempt to distinguish the a priori and a posteriori cognitions and between analytic and synthetic judgments, Kant explains posterior as the knowledge we gain and our independent achievements as the prior (Duncan, 2017, p.18). According to this view, what is the metaphysical status of time and space, nature in the material sense is the totality of all appearances.

Kant suggests that mathematics is possible due to the pure intuitions of our faculty of sensibility. In this sense, therefore, space and time are not independent entities that meet within the experience but intuitions that help human organize their sensations. Regarding moral reasoning, Kant argues that reason surpasses its boundaries and attempts to create the arguments regarding about things in them. When he says so act as to treat humanity, whether in thine own person or in that of any other, in every case as an end withal, never as a means only he means that people should be treated as ends and not as the paths that lead to the end. Kants theory can be applied in 2017 within various contexts such as in medical sector, business organizations and in the analysis of political issues.

Question 4:

Utilitarianism is among the crucial influential moral theories of the modern times. Its basic concepts and principles includes the notion that pleasure or happiness is only the thing that has an intrinsic value and that actions are right so long as they promote happiness. Jeremy Bentham's Utilitarianism different from John Stuart Mill's Utilitarianism on the fact that Mill argues that human actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness and wrong as they focus on promoting the production of the reverse happiness (Mill, 2017. p. 12). On the other hand, Bentham's ideas evaluate actions based upon their consequences. In his opinion, the relevant implications, in particular, are the overall happiness created for everyone affected who are by the action.


Duncan, Samuel. "Constructivism, moral realism, and the possibility of Kant's rational religion." Religious Studies (2017): 1-19.

Ishikawa, Shiro. "Linguistic Solution to the Mind-Body Problem." (2017).

Mill, John Stuart. Utilitarianism: With Related Remarks from Mill's Other Writings. Hackett Publishing, 2017.

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