Motivation refers to the ability to stimulate, inspire, and induce employees to perform at their level best. It is psychological and cannot be forced on the employees. Any workplace that needs to be successful requires motivating its employees. As such, motivated employees have high productivity that, in turn, is ideal for the workplace. The complexity of humans regarding understanding motivation has brought about the creation of motivation theories to help comprehend the factors that influence employees enthusiasm levels. In this case, the organization has recorded low profits over the past years and this suggested that the employees need motivation. Therefore, the development of a motivation plan concerning Maslows, Herzberg, McClelland, and Alderfers theories will help the organization as the employees the employees productivity levels will improve consequently leading to high profits gains.
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory revolves around the identification of the various needs of the employees in the development of a motivation plan. Therefore, the understanding of the needs of humans depends on learning various aspects of Maslows theory. According to the theory, desire or need is a vital element in motivation since employees can only get motivated when their needs are fulfilled (Riley, 2005). It also identifies a hierarchy of needs that are to be considered from the most important to the least important. The needs include physiological needs, safety and security needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs (Riley, 2005). Therefore, in this case, the organization will consider these needs in the development of the motivation plan.
First, it will ensure that the most important needs are taken into account, and these are the physiological needs. They are the basic requirements for survival of humans, and they include food, clothing, and shelter. According to the theory, employees develop the needs for survival, and they are given the priority. Therefore, the organizations motivation plan will ensure that these needs are addressed, and this can be through monetary incentives. Secondly, the organization will ensure that the safety and security needs of the employees are considered in the development of the motivation plan. According to the theory, safety and security needs are classified into economic and physical security. Economic security involves safety from accident, illness, and fire among others. Economic security involves having sufficient funds to deal with future physiological needs. The organization will ensure that its motivation plan takes into account these aspects through providing monetary incentives to the employees. Thirdly, social needs are also to be taken into account during the development of the motivation plan. Some of the aspects of social needs include the need for love, friendship, affection, and companionship among others. According to the theory, social needs become active once safety and physiological needs are satisfied. The organization will ensure that it takes into account these needs through promoting teamwork and arranging get together where the employees can interact. Next, esteem needs are also vital as they revolve around recognition and respect. According to the theory, the needs develop after the three above needs have been met. Therefore, the organization will take into account the esteem needs during the development of the motivation plan by creating an environment where the employees feel respected and can air their ideas. These needs do not require monetary incentives. Lastly, self-actualisation needs are also important as they revolve around reaching a certain am in life. The organization can achieve this through monetary and non-monetary incentives such as promotions.
Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory argues that for a person to consider that he or she is motivated, there are two primary factors to consider. It means that the theory divides job satisfaction and motivation into two elements that are hygiene and motivation aspects. The motivation ones are described as job content factors. They entail achievement, advancement, responsibility, recognition, the possibility of growth and work itself (Riley, 2005). However, hygiene factors are also referred to as job context factors, and they include supervision, work conditions, company policy, salary, relationship with peers, status, job security, and relationship with supervision and subordinates. According to the theory, the main question involved is How are employees motivated (Riley, 2005). In this scenario, the organization will take into account these two groups of factors in the development of the motivation plan. Some of the ways in which the organization will handle the hygiene factors include offering competitive wages, fixing poor company policies, proving effective supervision, and creation of a culture of respect for all employees. The fulfillment of the motivation factors will involve recognizing the contributions of the employees, giving responsibilities to the employees, and providing opportunities for advancement and achievement.
According to McClellands Need Theory, three significant needs are required by an individual for him or her to feel motivated. David McClelland believes that the understanding of motivation and behavior of human beings requires an understanding of their inclinations and needs (Riley, 2005). First, there is the need for accomplishment duties. It includes the yearning to understand detailed tasks, tackle problems, and do better. Secondly, there is the need for affiliation, and this encompasses the desire for warm and friendly relations with other people. Thirdly, there is the need for power, and it includes the desire to influence behavior and control others. The organization will consider these three important needs in the development of the motivation plan. Regarding the need for achievement, the organization will ensure that it keeps the employees engaged through the provision of challenging situations and giving balanced appraisals to the achievers. The organization will meet the need for affiliation through promoting teamwork and encouraging good relationships among the employees. Lastly, the organization will meet the need for power by promoting employees acknowledging good efforts.
Layton Alderfers ERG theory was developed in 1969, and it involves the condensing of Maslows Hierarchy of Needs theory. The five needs are condensed into three that include existence, relatedness, and growth (Arnolds & Boshoff, 2002). According to the theory, existence needs are inclusive of material desires as well as physiological gains like water, affection, food, safety, physical love, clothing and air. Relatedness needs are those that involve external and social esteem, and these include the relationship between the employees and other people like friends, employers, family, and co-workers (Arnolds & Boshoff, 2002). Growth needs encompass self-actualization and internal esteem, and these are vital to a person regarding making productive and creative effects in his or her environment (Chevalier, 2007). They include the desire to be creative and productive in the completion of meaningful tasks. While the priority of the needs differs among people, the theory prioritizes the needs from the most important ones to the least important ones, and these include existence, relatedness, and growth need in that order. The organization will take into account these needs in the development of the motivation plan. For instance, the existence needs will be met using monetary incentives. The relatedness needs will be considered through the creation of an environment that promotes good working relationships (Chevalier, 2007). Non-monetary incentives will accomplish the growth needs.
Summarily, the development of the motivation plan will encompass the consideration of several theories of motivation such as Maslows, Herzberg, McClelland, and Alderfers theories. In a case where employees are motivated, their productivity is likely to increase, and this will, in turn, benefit the organization. Maslows theory involves the consideration of five needs in a hierarchical manner. Herzbergs theory encompasses motivation and hygiene factors. McClellands theory involves three major needs include needs for achievement, affiliation, and power. Alderfers theory covers three needs that are the need for existence, relatedness, and growth. The motivation plan, therefore, will involve all these theories to ensure that the employees feel motivated.
Arnolds, C. A., & Boshoff, C. (2002). Compensation, Esteem Valence and Job Performance: An Empirical Assessment of Alderfer's ERG Theory. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 13(4), 697-719.
Chevalier, R. (2007). A Manager's Guide to Improving Workplace Performance. New York: AMACOM, American Management Association.
Riley, S. (2005). Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Motivation Applied to The Motivational Techniques Within Financial Institutions. Senior Honors Theses. 119. http://commons.emich.edu/honors/119
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