Bramante was tasked with the provision of design for replacing old basilica church of Saint Peters. This building had fallen into disrepair and did not suit the ambitions of Julius, and as the symbolic seat of the papacy, Saint Peters represented the history of the church. "Bramantes design structure consisted of a cross with arms equal in length and each terminating in an apse." The design suited the presence of Saint Peters tomb and left a space for Julius tomb. This design was ambitious and called for a boldly sculptural treatment of the walls under the dome provided. The design had a complex interior organization with the intricate symmetries of a crystal (Cropper, 35). The scale was titanic, and during his time Bramante built the crossing piers and lower choir walls.
The major changes Michelangelo initiated was the organization of units symmetrically around a central axis as provided in the functioning of the human body. Michelangelo reduced the central component from interlocking crosses to a compact domed cross inscribed in a square. Michelangelo converted the complexity of the building into a massive and cohesive unit (Hersey, 47). He adopted a colossal order meaning giant pilasters at the front were constructed to march around undulating wall surfaces, which confined movement without interruption. The building was unified from base to top by use of architectural sculptures extending from the ground to the top of the dome. This approach provided by Michelangelo helped simplify the architectural design provided initially and led to greater stability and ease of construction.
Pope Julius II and the 16th-century art
Pope Julius II had a significant influence on the 16th-century art by acting as a patron. In this period Julius brought the role of the church in commissioning art to heights. During this period masters had perfected the techniques of Renaissance art and introduced the era referred to as high renaissance. The commissioning of these great works by the experienced worker was only commissioned by the greatest patrons (Cropper, 120). Julius II happened to be one of the patrons in the period. During his patronage, Michelangelo adopted the design made by Bramante working on new Saint Peters basilica.
The patron inspired the design of the construction by giving insight and directions such as the inclusion of his tomb just as Saint Peters tomb was. During this patronage, Michelangelo participated in the painting of the Sistine Chapel, Stanza Della Segnatura by Raphael and the design of the new Saint Peters basilica by Bramante (Hersey, 24). The pope provided guidance on many aspects of construction as to what to include. Pope Julius II was motivated by the passion of arts, vanity, pride and religious devotion and thus influenced major works during the patronage. The pope commissioning of the new Saint Peters basilica art was one of the major works he inspired during his support (Lotz, 135). The humanistic approach employed by Raphael in the construction of the school of Athens can greatly be attributed to the influence of the pope (Cropper, 201). This is since the pope desired the room as a library and thus the arrangements were his interests. The walls frescoes were arranged in four intellectual disciplines; philosophy, theology, poetry, and jurisprudence. These guiding actions from the pope show a keen interest in the construction and art which greatly determined the architectural plan of other constructions such as Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine in the roman forum.
Sofonisba Anguissola changes on portraiture
Sofonisba played a critical role in the portraits production in a time when the industry was dominated by males. She introduced a new style of portraiture through the inclusion of various subjects set in different places. This lady served in Spanish court as a painter and enjoyed a satisfying career. She introduced subjects set in informal ways such as holding animals and playing chess a form that was non-existed. The industry was male-dominated but Sofonisba was able to capture the hearts of fellow artists through her works which elevated her in the career (Garrard, 601). It was through her apprenticeship that set a precedent for acceptance of women as art students, a professionally which was dominated by men. Without formal education, she was able to work on many portraits that required complex analysis. She produced many religious portraits and influenced the spread of art in Genoa and later Palermo where she settled.
The main idea that Anguissolas work provided was the authenticity and animation which translated to inventions rather than copying from nature. In this manner, Anguissola was able to provide a new dimension for paintings which was adopted and recognized by masters such as Michelangelo (Garrard, 622). In her excellence from drawings, coloring, painting and copying great works, she was able to produce some very rare and beautiful paintings. Sofonisbas work and success inspired many females to pursue serious careers as artists. Therefore, Sofonisnbas interest it the profession helped change the narrative and influenced many people to take part in the career. The work has had a lasting influence, and her paintings and portraits have been conserved in various places.
Michelangelos David difference from 15th-century portraits
Michelangelos David had some differences with the sculptures produced earlier of different areas. In Michelangelos case, David is presented a nude man with a well-developed muscular physique. The veins in his arms are visible, and the stone he clutches on to is visible. In this perspective, David lacks many objects associated with the biblical narrative. In this case, he has no sword, unlike in other portraits. Michelangelo does not show Goliaths head.
David is presented in a giant form, and it can be seen the portrait is before the victorious battle. He is provided standing alone in colossal size and shown as a strong man. This is a bit different from other works which predict that David was a small man and Goliath the Giant from the size of the head provided beside David (Smith, 75). Many sculptures provide a case after the battle, but from Michelangelos case, David has not yet engaged in battle. Intense concentration, an anticipation of action and focus confirm the determination of action within helping in the deduction. Despite these differences, the portraits have been used for a long time for religious services. Other errors in the Michelangelos case include; long right hand, disproportionately large head, and a long left leg.
Aesthetic differences High Renaissance and Mannerist Madonna
The two images present Madonna in various places. Raphael presents her image outdoor while Parmigianino presents her indoors in the presence of other women and children. The present images perspectives of female beauty on the aspect of physical appearance. Raphael is keen to present Madonna as a well-dressed mother with her two babies who are completely nude. According to Raphael Madonna body is soft just as her two children unlike in Parmigianino case where the young male is presented as muscular. Mannerist shows the differences between female body and male body on the characteristics of physical strength (Freedberg, 33). This strength is admired by many female associates who are seen around to hold the baby. In the other case, the babies do not attract much attention from the female.
The characteristic of a long neck is also admirable in the mannerist period since Madonna is presented as eliciting much attention from her beauty characteristics. The physical characteristics of both genders thus are a factor in the two periods, and each participant wants to provide the most suited features.
In this piece of art, Francis in the desert, the most conspicuous form of fingerprints is detectable on the far corner directly above the human skull in the right corner. In that region smoothening by use of hands can be identified by the marks present on edge.
The main aspect that contributes to the concluding high renaissance period drawing as the most famous in the western world is; mannerism, provision of good art, harmonious, clarity, and easy to like. The paintings were characterized by qualities of harmony and balance and provided a point of focus on the importance of decorative arts (Cropper, 200).
Mannerism enhanced intellectual sophistication and the inclusion of artificial qualities enhanced its quality and therefore provides a clear perspective. In this period the goals of artistic aim reached the greatest realization resulting to very good pieces of art.
The advent of oil paints made a great contribution which is still evident in the paintings. Development was further enhanced by the growing number of patrons and thus influenced diversity (Freedberg, 130).
Cropper, Elizabeth. "The Place of Beauty in the High Renaissance and its Displacement inHistory of Art." Place and Displacement in the Renaissance (1995).Garrard, Mary D. "Here's looking at me: Sofonisba Anguissola and the problem of the womanartist." Renaissance Quarterly 47.3 (1994): 556-622.
Hersey, George L. High Renaissance art in St. Peter's and the Vatican: an interpretive guide.University of Chicago Press, 1993.Freedberg, Sydney J. "Painting of the high Renaissance in Rome and Florence." (1985).
Smith, Bernard. "High Renaissance and Mannerism."Lotz, Wolfgang. "Architecture in the later 16th century." College Art Journal 17.2 (1958): 129139.
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