Medical Essay on Coronary Artery Disease

Published: 2021-07-12 07:08:47
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Sewanee University of the South
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Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most popular conduction among many people in the United States and other parts of the world. CAD occurs when arteries which supply blood to heart muscle become hardened and narrow. This conduction occurs due to cholesterol build- up and other fat materials, known as plaque on walls of the heart (Gusyton, 1991). This build- up is called atherosclerosis it allows less blood to circulate through the arteries, and this prevents the heart to get blood or oxygen required for the heart muscles. As a result, a person may end up suffering from the heart attack because of the blood clot around the blocked heart vessels. Furthermore, CAD can also weaken the heart muscles and contribute to arrhythmias; this means that heart will not be able to circulate blood well to other part of the body and change beating rhythm of the heart.

How that disease alters the normal function of the human body

Heart disease is leading cause of death among many men and women in the United States. The research tells us that 15 million Americans suffer from coronary artery disease, generally, 3.7 percent of a given population are prone to having cardiovascular diseases (Gusyton, 1991). Men have high possibilities of suffering from heart disease compared to women; this is due to different life lifestyle between men and women.

It is important in circulatory systems combined with the blood vessel to supply blood to the body. Heart health should always concern people because its controls all body functions and activities. So, it is vital to maintain its health because our body is very sensitive and susceptible to the disorder. However, heart disease affects normal anatomy proper functioning of the body. As mentioned above, circulatory systems have a role to supply body cell and tissues with oxygen and nutrients around the body; this activity is needed in growth and development of cell and tissues.

Whenever, vessels are blocked, the body can develop kidney conduction, known as hypertension and eventually kidney failure additionally, peripheral vascular diseases that block arteries in arms and legs cause these to be paralyzed. If this conduction is not addressed it end up causing permanent disabilities, ulceration, gangrene among other disorders. It is also associated with amputation. This is popular among women with congenital heart disease, and this is high risk to stay pregnant because this can lead to her death and the babies' life. To avoid such problems mothers during pregnancy period should do way with consumption of alcohol, cigarettes and product contain high level of cholesterol.

How coronary artery disease is diagnosed clinically and treatment test

The doctor will diagnose coronary heart disorder (CHD) according to patient medical and family background history. The doctor will conduct all necessary steps to determine risk factor. A single test cannot determine the diagnose (CHD), and if the doctor thinks you have CHD, doctor may recommend the patient to several tests such as stress testing, electrocardiogram (EKG), echocardiography, chest x-ray and blood test among others.

Stress testing, the doctor, puts the patient in exercise to ensure that patient heart works hard and beats fast while running the test. And if you fail to exercise you are given medicine so that to rise heart rate. This test can indicate signs and symptoms possible of CAD such as difficulties of catching your breath, chest pain, unusual changes in heart beat rhythms. And if the patient fails to meet normal heart beating exercises as per normal patient. The doctor may recommend medicines that will increase get oxygen in the blood vessels. All in all, there are several factors that may prevent a person from proper functioning of the body such as, lungs diseases, anemia, and poor physical fitness. The doctor will determine the functioning of the heart while exercising and while resting. This test allows doctors to determine how well the blood is supplied and pumping blood around the body.

Electrocardiograms, involves a straightforward and painless tests which identifies hearts functions. The test illustrates how fast the heart is beating and its rhythms. This test points out strength and timing of electrical signals as their occurrence in the heart (Simon & Annex Laham & Kleiman & Dauerman & Moon, 2002). Also, it indicates any sign of heart damage or evidence of previous sign of heart attack or any risk of heart conduction.

Bloods test this process involves checking the level of patient fats, cholesterol, sugar, and protein contained in your blood system. If abnormal signs are found in patients system, the doctor tells a patient he or she may have coronary disease. The doctor may prescribe coronary angiography if other result aspects show that patient may get CHD. The test is applied on a dye and special x-ray to show inside coronary arteries. To get the dye into your coronary, the doctor will use a process called cardiac catheterization. A thin and flexible tube named as a catheter is inserted into the blood vessel inpatient arm or thigh, and the tube is threaded into coronary vessels, and the dye is applied to blood streams. The final step is a special x-ray is taken while the dye is spreading through arteries and doctor can study the circulation of the blood in vessels. This process is carried out in hospitals, and it is painless, although you may feel soreness in blood streams when the doctor insert catheter.

The final step is echocardiography this process uses sound waves that create a moving picture of the patient heart. The image indicates the size of the heart and how heart chambers and valves are working. Also, it produces echo which can be used to show the area where blood is not flowing and where the muscle are affected.

Explain how CAD is treated. Include specifics of treatment -- which drugs/surgical procedures/therapies

A several numbers of methods can be applied to treat CAD. Those suffering from angina are given different medicines. Antiplatelet therapy, including aspirins, to reduce pain and to decreases the chances of blood clotting in heart vessel. Calcium channel is also used because it assists to keeping arteries open and reduces chances of hypertension by relaxing the muscles that are within the arteries.

Percutaneous intervention and surgery, medicines cannot completely unblock arteries; some small coronary artery may require more treatment to reduce danger of the heart attack. Both therapies have perfect record among patient (Parisi & Folland & Hartigan, 1992). The treatment depends on patient conduction, and how arteries are affected and how heart muscles look like.

Coronary artery bypasses surgery this surgery that allows blood to pass from one artery to another. The doctor performs this operation by removing veins from one part of the body to another. These extracted streams are called graft. The surgeon repair graft by connecting vessel which are not blocked.

Physical activities, Doctors always advise their patient to involves them self with the physical routine because it lowers chances coronary disease, reduces weight and cholesterol level. When patients are physically active, they reduce a risk of diabetes. Whenever, patient is engage in moderate intensity and aerobics 2 hours every day it will boost health.

Medication prescribed for treatment of coronary disease

Doctors always prescribe the different medication to patients suffering from heart disease. This medication includes aspirin, beta blockers, ranexa, ace inhibitors and lipid management among others. However, aspirin is the most common medication for heart disease patient because it prevents the blood from clotting. Aspirin has been beneficial to the patient because it improves heart pain after cardiovascular disease.

Beta blockers, this is medication that is prescribed to patients after is being diagnosed with heart disease, heart vessel became very weak and one experience difficulties in blood flow system. Beta blockers help patients to improve blood flow to the heart, reduce blood pressure and symptom and angina. This medication has assisted a large number of patients.

Ranolazine is also known as ranexa, and this is the drug that treats angina symptoms. It improves blood flow and decreases chances of angina attacks which occurred among heart disease patients (Hirsch & Criqui & Treat-Jacobson & Regensteiner &Creager, & McDermott, 2001). It must be applied together with other medication

Ace inhibitors, this type is recommended to the patient who experiences heart failure or those patients heart muscles are not pumping the blood properly to other parts of the body.

Over the years doctors use aspirin to relieve pain, prevent and managing heart disease. The heart association usually recommends baby aspirins to those patients detected with occurrences of heart disease after doctors diagnoses and those who have survived heart conditions. To this effect, doctors always discourage use of aspirin to those who are not suffering from heart risk. Doctors advice public to take medication as per doctor prescription. In conclusion, it is vital to consider the ways we can prevent our self from Coronary artery disease. There are several ways we can adopt such as, not smoking, controlling blood pressure, exercise and taking advice from the doctor about vitamins supplements. Many people have experienced heart disease due to smoking. It is evidence that nicotine raise a persons blood pressure because, release adrenaline which causes the body vessel constricts making the heart to beat faster. Doctors regularly encourage people to take food which contains vitamin supplements. Making food which is rich in vitamins E and beta carotene are very healthy and assist to lower cardiovascular risk (Clark & Hartling & Vandermeer & McAlister, 2005). According to researchers regular exercise makes heart very healthy and reduces heart-related diseases. Also, exercise helps to reduce chances of high blood pressure. It is advisable to first talk to the doctor before undertaking any new exercise program because the physician can prescribe the kind of training required.

 

References

Parisi, A. F., Folland, E. D., & Hartigan, P. (1992). A comparison of angioplasty with medical therapy in the treatment of single-vessel coronary artery disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 326(1), 10-16.

Simons, M., Annex, B. H., Laham, R. J., Kleiman, N., Henry, T., Dauerman, H., ... & Moon, T. (2002). Pharmacological treatment of coronary artery disease with recombinant fibroblast growth factor-2. Circulation, 105(7), 788-793.

Guyton, A. C. (1991). Blood pressure control--special role of the kidneys and body fluids. Science, 252(5014), 1813-1816.

Clark, A. M., Hartling, L., Vandermeer, B., & McAlister, F. A. (2005). Meta-analysis: secondary prevention programs for patients with coronary artery disease. Annals of internal medicine, 143(9), 659-672.

Hirsch, A. T., Criqui, M. H., Treat-Jacobson, D., Regensteiner, J. G., Creager, M. A., Olin, J. W., ... & McDermott, M. M. (2001). Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care. Jama, 286(11), 1317-1324.

 

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