Crime has become a major social issue in the USA. The rate of offenses has risen, especially among the young class. The juvenile refers to youth below the age of 18 years. In U.S.A over 130,000 juveniles have been detained so far. According to Aizer and Doyle (2015), these crimes are committed on a daily basis by youth who have either been too juvenile or have had a history in the field of offense. The number keep increasing on a day to day basis, and the figures are increasing with time.
When a youth below the age of 18 years commits a crime, this is termed as a juvenile deliquesce. Consequently, delinquency acts are termed as a crime according to the penal code. These acts of delinquency are committed by people who are facing difficult situation caused by minor factors. These factors that provoke one into a criminal differ from one another.
Factors which contribute to the commitment of the inadequate include, Physical factors, mental factor, and environmental factors make a significant contribution towards crime. These factors are the triggers of the crime action by an individual. The complexity of the environment and surrounding makes the rate higher for a juvenile to commit an act of the offense. These factors include school environment, home situation and the community where the youth resides. To commit a crime, one weighs what he will gain considering the market and money value. The juvenile also considers the satisfaction he/she will gain from the offense. These factors that affect the perpetrators of these crimes are mostly affected by these conditions.
The physical appearance and nature of youth can significantly affect the reason behind the committing of juvenile crime. The emotional stress of a disabled juvenile triggers the act of revenge because of his physical state of the body. A disabled youth commits a crime to match others who have no physical disabilities. Able-bodied juvenile and energetic will direct his energy towards crime as a way of using his energy and gaining what he wants from his/her victims. This energy is misused and directed into committing a crime which is later termed as juvenile delinquency. According to Ardoin and Bartling (2010), drug addiction, physical ailments and malnutrition, and lack of sleep could trigger the act of crime among juvenile. The mental problem has been a great factor that contributes towards committing a crime among minors. Poor or low mental status affects the chances of one committing a juvenile delinquency greatly.
The Relationship between Juvenile and Crime
Haveripeth (2013) in his journal, clearly states that the mental condition having a deficiency and bodily harm facilitates the rate of crime among the minor. The lack of value and appreciation of the juvenile in the society school or home raises the chances of the juvenile to engage in crime (Haveripeth 2013). These youths feel neglected and therefore, indulging in crime as a way of self-comfort and acceptance. The lack of resources and high completion in the society may trigger the juvenile into committing the act of offense. Lack of moral standards is also a major factor that drives minors into indulging in crime. The ability not to judge good from evil is a significant factor value.
There is an indirect affecting by the home situation about juvenile crime action. The reacting and altering of a childs mind leads to a different perspective towards his/her home and surroundings. The closeness and openness of parents affect the way a child will interact with the outside world and the chances of committing a juvenile crime. Children who are close and attached to their parents have a low level of committing crime compared to the children who are less associated to their parents or no parents. Poor financial state of the family will easily drive a child into having committed a juvenile crime to satisfy his basic needs.
When deviance transforms, it turns into behavior, and this behavior transforms into a habit leading young people into a criminal career leading to juvenile crime (Kenny, Blacker & Allerton 2014). It reduces the self-esteem of the minor child. It will later make the child create competition in his life forcing his esteem to rise in the society(Kenny, blacker & Allerton 2014) Lack of parental guide and love leads a child into joining the peers who are not in a position to help or guide their fellow peer. When the social link is broken the child directs himself to the juvenile crime through his friends, and at this point, the education of the child has been ruined or downgraded in performance.
The School Condition
The school condition does not differ greatly with the home conditions. Similarly, they tend to share the same terms. Lack of adequate and improper facilities in a school may lead to a criminal mind in a child (Ardoin & Barting, 2010). The wrong choice of school and non-cooperating teachers triggers the elements of juvenile crime in a childs mind. Poor choice of company and lack of guidance and counseling in school will lead to the development of the criminal mind. One will adopt wrong moral codes and behavior that could have avoided. When the education system is too rigid and tough this conditions affect the child mentally and may direct the attention into other activity, which may include crime. Lack of student-teacher relationship is also a key factor and a determiner toward the character development of a child.
In an environment where one grows determines the current and future personality of one. In the case of, lacking recreational facilities and other social activity, one easily convinced into crime (Omboto, Ondiek, Odero & Ayugi 2013). The gang involvement and the types of movies affects character
Income generation of individuals matters the possibility of one to engage in juvenile crime. Lack of full-time occupation, free time and job availability in a region determines the factor of engaging in unlawful activity. Free time without income generating activity is the sole proprietor of juvenile crime among the youth. Gatti, Tremblay, and Vitaro (2009) summarize that the young people who are brought to juvenile and are released tend to have a higher chance of engaging in criminal activity. Minimal correction is done at the facility of minors though they are meant to correct the young attendants. Gatti, Tremblay, and Vitaro ( 2009) account for this in their journal, The labeling theory and the deviant peer contagion perspective. The labeling theory suggests that individuals undergo control by agencies tend to create the criminal character in them. This delinquent behavior happens to form criminal nature in the juvenile.
Early induction of children by parents through talking and guidance will play a significant role in preventing juvenile cases in the future. Enrichment and interactive programs play a prominent role in the modeling of a character (Lipsey 2009). When a correct follow-up is made, the child lessens the risk of crime indulges in the future. Full empowerment of children concerning the law will further reduce the chance and number juvenile delinquency. Those who already been to the juvenile should be followed up and given counseling pertaining the vice of offense. The community and schools, in general, should work handily with relevant authorities like the police and juvenile centers to pinpoint the characters of equivalent crime from the society.
The probation facilities should be well equipped regarding facilities to enable them to develop new characters that are acceptable in the community. The staff and teachers in the correctional facilities should be trained more frequently and enhanced with skills in handling their characters in the cells.
The community should play a major role of embracing the former juvenile back into the society to prevent them from becoming criminals again.
Offensive acts cause by juvenile deliquesce, are a fundamental issue and it is important to be addressed. Through this research paper, I am trying to show the basic causes of juvenile crime among the youth in the society. The factors that cause youth delinquency are many and complicated to enable one establish the real cause of the norm. Among the factors that contribute to this character include biological, psychological and sociological factors. These factors play a major role towards contributing to a juvenile crime and accomplishment by the individual. The physical environmental factor that contributes to juvenile delinquency can be identified in the past and present own mental makeup and character traits. Challenging factor and harsh environment are great contributions towards influencing the crime of minors and character development. The physical status and the pure mind can greatly contribute to juvenile delinquency. These developments are undergone by children in different stages before one completely displays the character of a minor. Culture value behavior and self-esteem are things that kids pick from grown up or their peers in the environment they live. Children tend to learn from imitating, observing and listening to the way the people around them behave. From this, a child can determine what is wrong or right from the things he has seen. In this case, minors need intervention from the society as a whole.
The physical attribute is a biological factor that deals with mental impairment and brain dysfunction. Different biological theories explain how different youth engage in juvenile crime. Sociology is termed as a major factor in influencing the indulgence in juvenile delinquency. The person in the society whom you mingle with determines the personal character of one. The surrounding is also a determiner of offenses indulgence of a person .the environment affects upbringing and true self of a person. Parental engagement in a child up bring also determine whether a child will or will not engage in juvenile crime in the future.
Aizer, A., & Doyle, J. (2015). Juvenile Incarceration, Human Capital, and Future Crime: Evidence from Randomly Assigned Judges*. The Quarterly Journal Of Economics, 130(2), 759-803.
Ardoin, L., & Bartling, C. (2010). Biological, Psychological, and Sociological Effects on Juvenile Delinquency. Retrieved 7 April 2017, from https://www.mcneese.edu/f/c/22152a3a/AJPR%2010-11%20Ardoin%204-06.pdf
Gatti, U., Tremblay, R., &Vitaro, F. (2009). Iatrogenic effect of juvenile justice. Journal Of Child Psychology And Psychiatry, 50(8), 991-998.
Haveripeth, P. D. (2013). Contributing Factors of Juvenile Delinquency. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development|| ISSN 22780211, 2(1), 8-16.
Kenny, D., Blacker, S., & Allerton, M. (2014). Reculer Pour MieuxSauter: A Review of Attachment and Other Developmental Processes Inherent in Identified Risk Factors for Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Offending (1st ed.). Retrieved from http://www.mdpi.com/journal/laws
Lipsey, M. (2009). The Primary Factors that Characterize Effective Interventions with Juvenile Offenders: A Meta-Analytic Overview. Victims & Offenders, 4(2), 124-147.
Omboto, J., Ondiek, G., Odera, O., &Ayugi, M. (2013). Factors Influencing Youth Crime And Juvenile Delinquency. Retrieved 7 April 2017, from http://ijsk.org/uploads/3/1/1/7/3117743/sociology_2.pdf
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