Knowledge of the Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease in Postmenopausal African American Women

Published: 2021-08-15 23:31:47
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University of Richmond
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Dissertation methodology
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The coronary artery disease (CAD) is today considered to be a primary cause of death for most persons, especially in the developed nations (American Heart Association, 2017; Okrainec, Banerjee, & Eisenberg, 2004). This is because it accounts for an estimated 20% of all mortality rates reported in most developed nations (Georgoulias, 2016; Chatterjee, Anderson, & Heistad, 2012). According to the World Health Organization (WHO) (2015), CAD has become a critical public health issue (Mayo Clinic, 2017; Brown, Cueto & Fee, 2006). The condition occurs when the blood arteries that supply blood to the heart becomes blocked (Brubaker, Kaminsky, & Whaley, 2002; Alters & Schiff, 2005).

Consequently, this deprives the supply of sufficient blood to the heart, which eventually results in a heart attack (Vlodaver, Wilson, & Garry, 2012). Due to the elevated CAD-related mortalities, research to determine the risk factors that may result in CAD development is warranted (Ram & Trivedi, 2012; Canto et al., 2011). In this case, the utilization of a good research methodology will influence the attainment of a successful outcome during the execution of the research study. This research methodology will be focused on securing data to ascertain the risk factors that could elevate the risk of attaining CAD, among postmenopausal African American women.

Description of the Subjects Recruiting Process

This research will target the postmenopausal African American women in living in Charlotte, NC. This target site has been deemed appropriate because according to the Census Bureau (2016), there are approximately 120,000 postmenopausal African American women that exist in Charlotte, NC. However, the targeted population that will be used for this study will consist of a maximum of 60 post-menopausal African American women living in the city. Furthermore, the convenience sample of the sample population that will be selected for the research will be obtained from the church setting.

Additionally, the selection process of an ideal sample population for the research will start by the identification of the best site to the participants recruitment. Additionally, for this research, the convenience sample population will be obtained from the local churches congregation. The site has been considered the best for selection because it has a large gathering of postmenopausal African American women. In this case, the researcher will seek permission from the churches administrators, for him to address the targeted convenience population. The researcher will also seek permission to conduct his meeting with the African American women after the church service has been concluded. Also, during the meeting, the researcher will introduce himself and explain to the women the reason for the meeting.

Moreover, the researcher will invite the women to participate in the education-based research study. Additionally, the willing women will write their names and contact information on an attendance reservation book provided by the researcher. The researcher will also target to sign a reservation for a minimum of 60 postmenopausal African American women who will take part in the survey. Additionally, the education-based research study will take place at the same churchs amphitheater upon the confirmation of consent from the churchs administration. Furthermore, the actual study will take place seven days from the day the postmenopausal African American women from the church will be invited to participate in the education-based research.

During the education-based study, the researcher will have the Body Mass Index (BMI) of all the postmenopausal African American women computed. He will then inform the participants in attendance why there is a need to execute the study. Moreover, this shall be performed through a two-hour training session on the risk factors associated with heart disease. In the two-hour training seminar, the participants will also be offered comprehensive and valuable information pertaining the lifestyle choices that either elevate or significantly decline the risk of a person acquiring heart disease. Furthermore, the researcher will inform the participants about the prevalence rates of the coronary artery disease and its risk factors, especially among postmenopausal African American women. Additionally, he will select the perfect candidates that will make the targeted sample population of 60 persons based on the findings of the BMI.

Description of the Research Instrument to Be Employed

The Tanita instrument will be employed in the assessment of both the height and weight of the research participants. The effectiveness of this instrument will be based on reasons that it can measure the study participants BMI as well as their fat percentage (Tanita, 2017). Additionally, when using the scale, the nurse will select the guest option on the scale to start the measuring process. This will then be followed by the selection of the age of the research participants using the arrows offered on the Tanita scale.

The next step will involve the selection of the appropriate body type of the research participant. Next, the nurse will select the height of the research participant and the ask the research participant to step on the Tanita scale. In this step, the participant being measured will not wear any shoes or heavy attires that might compromise her weight. After approximately 10 seconds, the research participant will step off from the scale, and the nurse will record her body fat as well as her weight levels.

Additionally, the nurse will press the first button on the Tanita scale to record the participants water levels. Furthermore, the nurse can press the second button in order to record the research participants muscle mass. Moreover, the third button will be employed to check the metabolic rate as well as the age of the study participant. Additionally, the fourth button will be pressed to determine the study participants bone weight as well as mass. Lastly, the fifth button will be employed to ascertain the visceral fat rating of the studys participant.

Research Method

In the study, the quantitative method of research will be employed. Moreover, the quantitative study will be performed by the research participants, both before and after the intervention has been employed. In this case, the intervention will be the 2-hour training seminar that will be conducted at the church. Additionally, a quantitative survey on the BMI and height data of the sample population of 60 postmenopausal African American women will be performed. The data collected will be recorded on a computer system and then preserved for data analysis.

In this case, the statistical data in the survey will be collected in two ways. First, the researcher will directly record the readings of the instrument used to measure the participants BMI and height and record them on a portable computing device. Secondly, questionnaires containing a list of ten structured questions that are relevant to the research problem will be issued to all the members of the sample population. Furthermore, the questionnaires will be issued to the participants on the same day when their BMI and height will be measured.

An Explanation for the Appropriateness of the Methodology

Additionally, the use of questionnaires to collect data from the participants will be important for this research because they are inexpensive and easy to administer (Olson & Boll, 2001; Mitchell & Jolley, 2009). Additionally, they will be appropriate for collecting data from the large population sample of 60 postmenopausal African American women. Questionnaires are also timely in collecting the desired information (Marinik, 2011; Downs & Adrian, 2012). For instance, in this project, the respondents will be required to return the completed questionnaires on the same day that they will be issued to them by the researcher.

Moreover, the questionnaires will be able to attain a large volume of information from the respondents within the given time frame (Presser et al., 2004; Brace, 2008). Also, the use of questionnaires in this research methodology will allow the data analysts to quantify the results collected quickly and easily (Sapsford & Jupp, 2006: Copeland & White, 1991). They are also more appropriate than other data collection techniques because they can be analyzed both scientifically and objectively, which is not possible in other forms of research methods (Karwowski, 2001).

Rationale for the Research Design

In this quantitative study, the descriptive research design will be employed for the research design. Additionally, there are three fundamental reasons as to why the use of a descriptive research design will be appropriate in the execution of this research. First, it can be a precursor of the need for future research to gather more information on various unverified findings of the research (Borrero & Borrero, 2008; Sloman, 2010). Secondly, the descriptive research methodology will be appropriate for this study because it facilitates a rich collection of voluminous data, which is essential for the validation of the research findings.

Protocols

The protocol framework of this research project will feature the introduction or background to the CAD problem, among African American women. Furthermore, this will be followed by a description of the subjects recruiting process and them the description of the research instrument to be employed. Again, this will be followed by the documentation of the research method employed as well as an explanation for the appropriateness of the research methodology. Also, the research will also provide documentation for the research design used as well as the discussion of the data analysis techniques to be employed for the study.

Data Analysis

The paired t-test analysis will be employed for the quantitative analysis of the data collected using the survey questionnaire. This technique will be employed to model and analyze several variables determined in this research. In this case, the researcher will compare the relationships that can be evidenced between the dependent as well as the independent variables. In this case, the independent variable that will be used is the educational seminar on heart disease risk factors for CAD as well as the lifestyle choices attained by the postmenopausal African American women. On the other hand, the dependent variable will be participants BMI. This is as measured by the Tanita instrument that was used during the research. Additionally, the researcher will use the findings of the data analysis to approve or disapproval whether providing education using Erikson's role modeling theory can increase the knowledge of the risk factors and intention.

That is in regards to changing the behavior to reduce the risk factors for CAD in the postmenopausal African American women. Also, in approving or disapproving the research question, the research will compare the quantitative study findings for the participants before as well as after the intervention has been enacted. Data from pretest/posttest and BMI will be analyzed using a paired t-test. The paired t-test will engage the quasi-experimental design with a convenience sample. The pretest/posttest will show knowledge retention. The BMIs of the participants will be compared to the intervention and after the intervention. If the BMI decrease, the education on the risk factors of coronary artery disease (CAD) using E...

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