Impact of Second World War in the Economy of a Country: Case Study of Australia

Published: 2021-06-30 18:35:58
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Sewanee University of the South
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Research proposal
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Introduction

The Second World War 2 started in the year 1939 -1945.It was a global war. Most of the countries in the world were involved this was especially those countries that had significant power this led to the formation of two military alliances that were opposing each other that is the Allies and the Axis. This was approximately involved more than 100 million people who were from over 30 countries across the world. This led to the affecting those countries entire economy, industrial as well as scientific capabilities this is because there was a massive death rate of the civilians, the bombing of industrial and population centers. Some of the long-term causes of world war two are seen as those that precedes world war 1.It was simply a continuation of world war 1.One of the causes that led to this war was the Italian fascism in the early 1920s.Invasion of China by the Japanese and Hilter and his Nazi party doing a political takeover of Germany. There is always a relationship that is created when it comes to historical events, geographical change and the economic development of a country.

Background of the Study about Australia and World War 2

Australia got involved in the Second World War from 3rd September 1939.It was after their Prime Minister who by then was Robert Gordon Menzies announced about their involvement on the national as well as commercial radios that were airing in Australia. Both the men and the women were involved in the war, and this was almost a million of the Australians. They were fighting against Germany and Italy in Europe. The Mediterranean and those countries that were in North Africa. Their first direct attack was when the Japanese aircraft decided to attack towns which were in the North-West of Australia while also the Japanese attacked the Sydney harbor. The Royal Australian Navy fought against Italy when it entered into the war in 1940.After successes against the Italian forces, Australia decided to accept the defeat with its Allies who were being led by the Germans at that particular time of the war, in Greece, Crete, and North Africa. Approximately 560,000 of the Australian Imperial Force served at the overseas during this period of Second World War. They worked closely with those of the United States where they were under the leadership of General Douglas MacArthur. The Australian forces played a significant part in the defeat of the Japanese in New Guinea, Borneo as well as Malaysia. Australia also suffered it had a total of 21000 people who died and also 58000 who were left as casualties from the war.

After the war countries that were initially stable became very unstable. For example for the case of Australia It entered world war 2 in 1914, its economic activity was based on agriculture where it produced wheat and as well as the production of natural resources. This war led to the disruption of its economic activities, many imports that were being made to the country were minimized, and some made unavailable, this is because the war had disrupted international shipping and the channeling of materials to the war production. As a result, Australia began expanding its secondary manufacturing industries which included the production of steel. The war led to the economic development of the country positively. This is because there was the need to produce war machines which were in high demand at the moment. They made the weapons and distributed to other countries which helped in its economic development. The war led to the capitalists profiting from it which made the industrial workers of the world see like there was exploitation of the middle class.

Those countries that were supplying weapons, uniforms, and food during the period of the Second World War experienced a significant economic change this is because most of the countries had now started becoming unstable. In 1917-1918 there was a significant economic change that was experienced by the Commonwealth, this is because it was collecting millions of money in income tax. Through war bonds, the Commonwealth managed to borrow millions from the people as well as Britain. This led to an intentional policy that was meant to control inflation by regulating gold and inflating the money value of Australia.

There was the creation of Boards which helped in the supervision of the supply of various commodities to other regions or countries. For example, the government of Australia created an Australian wheat board which assisted in the control of wheat supply. This led to the increase in the personal savings of the people of Australia this is because through the restrictions and rationing only a few consumer goods were available. Many Australian products were purchased the more they were produced, and in turn, other secondary industries also manufactured new items, this led to more employment hence more earning which contributed to the increase in personal savings. One of the biggest effects that were experienced in Australia was the migration revolution; this led to the Australian government fearing that there could be a possibility of another invasion, so they had to increase their population to prevent themselves from perishing. They allowed displaced persons and refugees into the country, and this led to modern multiculturalism, and in turn, it strengthened their relationship with the Asian countries regarding trade, and this was of great importance to their economy.

The world War 2 led to an increase in the tax rates and decreased on the consumer goods which resulted in lowering the living standards of the people for example in the case of the population of Australia. The government of Australia controlled no natural supply nor demand especially in the event of the wool clip. As a result, this led to a misunderstanding between the employers and their employees which resulted in strikes for example in 1916 there was the strike of the coal miners in NSW.The commonwealth was now supposed to ensure that Australia could make it in persecuting the war. The Commonwealth, in turn, resulted in having more powers at the expense of controlling the states economy.Wars are so expensive; this is because a lot of money will need to be used to acquire the weapons to be used during the period of the war. This can lead to the destruction of a lot of capital. Wars can result in significant shocks towards a countrys economy as it can cause increased rated in poverty, more crimes, starvation and hunger by the people of that country as well as a result to some of the people being refugees. It leads to high inflation in a country hence increasing the cost of living to the people. War also leads to capital depletion when it comes to the economy of a country

Statement of the Problem

During times of war, a country can undergo a drastically change when it comes to its economy; it could be caused by both internal and external forces. This research proposal is meant to help us understand the impact that the World War 2 had and imposed a countrys economy. The impacts from it were either positive or adverse effect. We are going to look at the case of Australias economy how it was affected by the war. The war led to a negative and as well as positive impact on the economy of various countries. The effect was greatly experienced in the economy of Australia.

Literature Review

In this literature review, we are going to see how different historians say about the causes, conduct and the results of world war 2.The three main perspectives are the Orthodox which were in the 1950s, the Revisionists who were in the 1970s and the third ones are the post-revisionists whose perspectives are the most contemporary.

The Orthodox was experienced after the aftermath of 2nd world war. The historian who is recognized with this point of view is Hugh Trevor-Roper.He argues that Hilter was the master planner who intentionally led to the start of the war. These historians argue that if the Axis powers were a sort of evil that was meant to consume the world the Allied powers, on the other hand, were trying to protect democracy as well as freedom. The Revisionist perspective has very liberal viewpoints, the best-known historian during this period is Howard Zinn and A.J.P.Taylor.They say that Hilter was just an opportunist and hence had to take advantage of those advantages that he had. The post-revisionist historians such as Alan Bullock argue that both factors caused the war. That is having set objectives and taking the opportunity in the situation.

Research Methodology

Project Goal

The main aim of this research is to be able to determine if the Second World War had a positive impact or a negative impact on the economy of the countries. The case study will examine the economy of Australia about the war.

Research Objectives

i. To study the adverse impact of world war two on Australias economy.

ii. To explore the positive influence on the economy of Australia during the Second World War.

Research questions

i. How did Australia benefit from World War 2?

ii. What advantage did Australia have over other countries during world war2?

iii. Was the war of benefit to the economy of Australia or not?

iv. How world war 11 affected a countrys economy.

Research Design

The project will be carried out using a cross-sectional descriptive study design which will further use both the qualitative as well as the quantitative techniques. According to scholar Nelson Hank, research design is considered the state of affair as it tends to appear. The cross-section aspects of this study will mainly focus in grouping and categorize of the interview logics.

Target Population

This is the intended group of people to be used by a researcher to get and arrive at his objectives during the research process. In this research, the target population and country are the people of Australia.

Sample Size

According to Baer (2010), the determination of the sample size is of great importance during the research process. It should be of a reasonable size so as to fulfill the set objectives. A good sample size is usually efficient, reliable, flexible and as well as representative. The chosen sample size is intended to represent the entire population and give a good conclusion in relation to the research.

Data Collection Method

The data will be collected through the review of historical and use of interviews to those people who were there during the Second World War. Through the review of history, we will be able to estimate the number of people that dies during that period and prominent people who could have died during that period yet they were of great importance to the economy of Australia. The method of data collection will be done systematically starting by choosing the target population, sampling it and then deciding on the type of research instruments to be used. Hence the interviews should be well scheduled to optimize in getting the correct information.

Research Instruments

The researcher will carry out an in-depth literature review to design the questionnaire for the survey. The questionnaire will also incorporate open-ended sections to capture respondents opinion. The constructs generated from literature review will be used to design structured questionnaire.

Data Analysis

After collection,...

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