Currently, information and communication technology is omnipresent in the lives of people across the world, rendering it an essential precondition in the society. Looking back at a century ago, one can say that the globe is at a totally transformed situation as of today, due to the dynamic growth of modern technology. As in, a strong interlink exists between technology, industry, business, and culture; which has led to a technological dependent society. The advancement of the internet has infiltrated and improved social relationships, education, and the distribution of information among people. It is not a surprise anymore to find students studying with laptops in school, or businessmen having a video-conference in their meetings. Consequently, different scholars have researched on some of the trends concerning the world changes associated with the expanding roles of technology in the human lives. On that note, this paper will entail a summative literature review of five scholarly articles, to explore the ethical issues in the pervasiveness and roles of technology in the society.
Some literature materials written by scholars are scrutinized to see and understand the ubiquity of technology and address the ethical issues associated with the roles it plays in the society. According to the scholarly article Global Perspectives: Innovative Technology, Integration Practices from Around the World, written by Robert Kozma, the author stipulates the impacts of integrating technology in the education system based on a case study conducted. Technology in this context is narrowed into the basic use of computers; mostly the web resources and e-mails, to enrich the learning competences of students. The author reveals that schools with increased use of computers have been able to increase the innovative capability of students, as some use multimedia software packages for their presentations; others employ web browsers to explore useful material, while some use the e-mails in support of communications(Kozma, 2003). Further, the author affirms that basic use of technology in schools has resulted to positive changes to the students and in the establishment, since it has made learners to develop a positive affinity towards learning, as well as embellish their collaborative and independent skills in learning. However, Kozma noted that not many students developed new abilities to handle information or even solve problems.
According to another scholarly editorial namely, Becoming Interculturally Competent by Milton J. Bennet, it tries to give a clear depiction of how the human mind bases its thinking and how the cultural acceptance has been a major influence on the growth of technology. Bennet bases his research on the development of a defense against a cultural difference. He also narrows further to research about interferences of minimizations such as when a person holds onto the beliefs of his or her religion, and in turn, strives to prove wrong other worldly religions in order to suit-in their point of belief. The same applies to cultural perspectives of individuals, an aspect which is termed as ethnocentrism. At one time of the earth, mankind had a common way of life but due to increased population and drifting of people, some individuals decided to live in different environments. As a result, the people who settled in the new habitats formed a platform of adopting new ways of life and also changing their beliefs. An example is the complex Hindu religion which has many contradictions and thus, its teachers are met with a vast outcome of controversies. These different cultures of the world have hindered some groups of people from exchanging ideas due to collusion thus making it difficult to enjoy the roles of technology in our lives. Culture hides more than it reveals, and strangely enough what it hides, it hides most effectively from its own participants, this proverb suits well concerning the need to improve the practical application of technical tools.
Nick Bostrom and Rebecca Roache (2008), in their article namely, Ethical Issues in Human Enhancement, discuss some of the ethical concerns raised by the society in regards to use of technology for human enhancement. The authors acknowledge the purpose of enhancement to the humans, admitting that it is a form of therapy that attempts to fix a certain situation, through the cure of particular ailments. Moreover, Bostrom and Roache (2008), point out that there has been a notable gain in the life extension in the recent decades concerning life expectancy of humans. This gain they say can be attributed to the social and technological developments of the society, as opposed to the evolutionary changes of people. For instance, improvements in sanitation, diet, and education have contributed to the positive sustainability of the human life. Nevertheless, the ability of technology to ensure that people are free of diseases is difficult to accomplish, since senescence progressively makes individuals susceptible of diseases. On the other hand, the authors outline that physical enhancement, which has caused so many controversies especially in sports, could actually be used to benefit the users. That is, in as much as athletes are forbidden to dope while participating in sports, the feats that the medications empower them to accomplish are at times remarkable. In such a case, the authors claim, it might reach a time when all the players in sports are allowed to use performance-enhancing drugs, a move to eradicate illicit use of drugs, rather than undermining the sport. The authors also touch on the use of technology for selecting the best children. On one side, Bostrom and Roache (2008), argue that technology will prove advantageous as future genetic children born will be healthier and smarter. On the other hand, the perfectionality of the procedures involved is in question, as many do not believe that the particular methods will produce the desired child.
In his article, Brain to Brain Interfaces, John J. (2015), confirms that a technology that allows telepathic communication between minds, person to person or person to animals, is already in place. This risks the secrets of people, he says. As much as this improvement helps especially in police investigations, John sees the risk of wiping out someones information or receiving information accidentally. From, the article, any shared information between two minds becomes real to the parties involved. John implies that the technology leaves people with other peoples thoughts, which can interfere with their personalities. It can propel someone to indulge in awful activities directed by the source of the idea which is a big risk to the society, as explained by John.
On a different publication, Tia Ghose (2013), suggests that the robots helping out run many activities around the globe might soon overtake the humans. Tia believes that in sixteen years, robots will be able to outsmart the same people making them. He calls it the Singularity, where humans thoughts and actions will face significant competition from the robots that will be smarter and more powerful in every possible way. Tia argues that the rapid changes occurring in the technology sector are already paving the way towards the Singularity. He adds that robots don't suffer biological or physical torture, which is a disadvantage for the humans. Tia believes that when artificial intelligence takes over, then the humans will suffer since they will have no power over them. He argues that the future technology doesn't put humanity in priority. Tia gave an example of self-operational cars that in-turn render many drivers jobless. As suggested by Tia, most tasks that require human care are rapidly getting replaced by robots. He points out the use of robots, which are not compassionate, in caring for the elderly as a sign for the beginning of the Singularity. He concludes that humans act as the energy source, powering the robots to do all activities.
In conclusion, scholars encourage the use of a common language since it creates a small world as people get to easily understand each other at any corner of the world. Technology should be embraced in every institution and also different groups of people as a method to promote the world integration. However, technology should not be used to substitute the existence of human beings.
Bennett, M. J. (2004). Becoming interculturally competent. Toward multiculturalism: A reader in multicultural education, 2, 62-77.
Bostrom, N., & Roache, R. (2008). Ethical issues in human enhancement. New waves in applied ethics, 120-152.Ghose, T. (2013). Intelligent Robots Will Overtake Humans by 2100, Experts Say. Livescience.com. Retrieved from https://www.livescience.com/29379-intelligent-robots-will-overtake-humans.html
John, J. (2015). Brain to Brain Interfaces. Retrieved from http://reilly.nd.edu/outreach/emerging-ethical-dilemmas-and-policy-issues-in-science-and-technology-2015/brain-to-brain-interfaces/
Kozma, R. B. (2003). Global perspectives. Learning & Leading with Technology, 31(2), 6.
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