Essay Sample on Genetics and DNA

Published: 2021-06-25 03:09:50
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The understanding of the similarity of the offspring and the parents in their structure and the physiological features have stumped several biologists. Genes determine the individual's appearances, height, the color of hair or skin and eyes. Genes do not act alone, but the functions are very reasonable in constructing useful molecules like the ribonucleic acid and proteins making the chemical reactions in the body (Cooper, 2017). Heredity is the transmission of traits from one generation to the next while Genetics refers to the scientific study of heredity. The paper will discuss how the DNA through the process of protein synthesis is responsible for the ultimate expression of the characteristics of the organism (Cooper, 2017). The paper will also describe the interference in the protein synthesis that can result in the disruption of cellular and body process and how one class of protein and enzyme relates to proper nutrition.

Significant Discoveries in Genetics and DNA

Factual evidence has been laid out to show that DNA materials are accountable for the genetic inheritance. It has been assumed that proteins had controlled the genetics of living things since there were so many different expressed traits (Cooper, 2017). It has been identified by a biologist that DNA is a simple molecule in its structure and it is possible that it is responsible for many differences in life. It is inferred that numerous protein control genetics.

The different suggestion has been given by various scholars especially Mendel who identified that genes regulate characters that are found in pairs known as alleles. The witness of expressions of the characters in the offspring that followed to assure different forms of the first generation, second and the rest of the offspring (Hossain, 2016). Since genes are segments of the DNA that convey essential information so that it could create protein. Each has got two copies of each gene that one inherited from one parent and the alleles are formed of the same gene with small differences in their sequence of DNA bases. It is said that the small differences are what contributes to each persons unique physical feature.

How DNA is responsible for characteristics of an organism through protein synthesis process

Most of the time if a cell is not dividing, it is performing a series of activities under the control of DNA in its nucleus. For this process to occur, certain portions of the DNA in the chromosomes should be taken out into the cytoplasm so as to be used in the synthesizing control proteins or enzymes that would be utilized for the cell (Hossain, 2016). The synthesizing can occur without two conventional processes which are transcription and translation. In transcription, two strands of DNA molecule usually split causing a short part to be copied into a various similar short section of the RNA molecule.

Transcription involves the formation of the RNA molecule according to the base sequence in the DNA. In this process, a strand of messenger RNA is formed, and then it leaves the nucleus and passes into the cytoplasm. The opened-up section of the DNA reforms again into a helix just as it was before. The other way is through translation which involves the messenger RNA passing out of the nucleus and traveling to small structures that are known as ribosomes in the cytoplasm. Interpretation occurs, and there is built up of individuals subunits in small bits located in the cytoplasm (Cooper, 2017). There are 20 different amino acid with formidable names but they differ in the chemical properties, and they have a similar section by which they are linked. Every section contains three bases in the messenger RNA strand that carries enough information so that the next amino acid can be identified and then coiled to make protein.

Genetics Characteristics to DNA Structures

The important properties of all the living things are the ability to reproduce. All the organisms inherit the genetic information while they are specifying their structure and the function of the parents (Cooper, 2017). It is evident that all the cells come from the preexisting cells whereby the hereditary material is supposed to be delivered to the offspring after being replicated from the parents through a process of cell division.

The traits of a living organism depend on the complex mixtures of the interactions of the components that are inside of it. Proteins are said to be the most reliable component of the chemical that works inside the cells. The proteins owe their existence to the DNA (Cooper, 2017). With the DNA building blocks which include the four sugars that are the Adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine, they are the one that hooks up the nucleotides into a sequence, and they contain information on when protein should be made. The DNA in a cell serve as a description or even better, as a blueprint for a human, animal, plant or microorganism.

Interference of protein resulting in Disruption of Cellular and Body Processes

Altered conformation that leads to protein interference disrupts various cellular processes leading to a clinical picture of the lead poisoning. Protein interference can be caused by intoxication of some heavy metals like lead which affect the renal, cardiovascular and the reproductive systems (Allan Drummond, & Wilke, 2009). The intoxication usually blocks the receptors that are known as N-methyl-D-aspartate which is an active receptor that is involved in the maturation of the plasticity of the brain. Various processes get disrupted like the renal system, the cardiovascular system, and the central nervous system.

Significance of one class of protein to proper nutrition

There are different things that our cells require although they should rather not have them although everything is usually needed incorrect amounts or even concentration. Our metabolism determines which compounds we need in our diet since the enzyme can catalyze certain reactions and utilize certain substrates and leave out some (Allan Drummond, & Wilke, 2009). It also indicates that they can create certain products and not others meaning it can function properly in the presence of too much or even too little of the protein and it, therefore, allows us to take correct balances since it is important about the enzymes. Enzymes are protein molecules that are synthesized by all plants and animals, and they are required for the body to function properly since, without it, it can be likened to a situation where one runs low on fuel.

References

Allan Drummond, D., & Wilke, C. (2009). The evolutionary consequences of erroneous protein synthesis. Nature Reviews Genetics, 10(10), 715-724. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrg2662

Cooper, G. (2017). Heredity, Genes, and DNA. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 28 April 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9944/

Hossain, A. (2016). Henrik Ibsen's Ghosts: A Critical Study of Hereditary Genetics. Hereditary Genetics, 05(01). http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2161-1041.1000162

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