Canada is a country located in Northern America. Similar to the United States, Canada is a country highly developed with themajority of people living in the urban areas. This development is as a result of numerous industries introduced by the current administration. Unlike theUnited States led by a president, Canada has a queen as their leader making this government a monarchy.Itconsists of different people such as the French, British and also the Aboriginals. However, this economy was not always that developed.in the 17th century; this region received colonisation from both the British and the French due to its high supply of fur. This fur trade helped shape the economy of this territory. The first nation that initiated this activityincludes the Russians who mainly hunted animals such as wolves for their fur. Asia and other countries in Western Europe bought the fur. However, as the days passed, these Russians discovered more animals rich in fur in Siberia regions which led to the invasion of Siberia by the Russians. Finally, these Russians managed to penetrate into the Northern America especially Canada where they harvested more animals such as the beavers. This essay examines the fur trade in the Northeast, the North, the West, and on the West Coast from ca. 1600 to ca. 1840 in Canada.
The fur trade is, for good reason, symbolic of the history of Canada since the 1600s
The critical first symbol of the business was the introduction of European countries such as Russian, France,and England into North America that brought about colonialism since these countries were interested in entirely managing the source of the fur and control the incomes from the trade. This trade was also asymbolic aspect of this business was that these traders got the chance to interact economic-wise where countries such as England provided equipment to the Americans in exchange of the furs that the Americans had harvested.1 Additionally, it was the basis for the formation of military alliances alongside establishing prominent intermediaries2. For trade to occur smoothly on the outside and the interior between the colonisers and the Native Americans, they identified a community that was to act as the central location where this trade was to occur. They had longhouses that are similar to warehouses today. The communityidentified had the name Wendat and had the large storage spaces. Another reason that made the European countries select this community was the fact that it was wealthy and was very proficient in corn farming. The North had the first interest in the Canadian fur which provided quality fur during the first half of the 17th century which made them lose touch with the middlemen.3Another symbolic impact of this trade was that there was theformation of creole language that resulted from the marital interactions between the migrants and the Native Americans. These mixed raced became renowned thusthe reason why they were able to create their language. It also caused theformation of a gap of power and wealth where a group of people led the rest of the community whereas the rest of the people were meant to get their hands dirty through harvesting of the fur.
Origin of Fur Trade
When this trade began, the fishers from different European countries did not see these new regions as anything more than just some fishing regions. They had depleted every inch of fur that was left in their country hence moving to Northern America for more fur supply.4However, this business did not start until the 1500s where these sailors traded their goods with the fur. The first trader to be reported sailing into the region was Cartier who traded with Native Americans at the St. Lawrence River around 1534. By 1578, more sailors had flocked into the area to intensify on the production of more fur and exchanging it with the Natives.5 As this trade was beginning, there was very high competition between England and France for the fur that which led to these two rulers claim different regions as their own. When this trade boomed, there was theconstruction of companies such as the Hudson Company created by the English people. Canadas fur trade is as a result of increased demand in European fur market.The French and English were depleting their fur supply,and further emphasis on hunting activities presented a challenge that the trade would fail. Alternative supply from Russia meant expensive acquisition due to shipping budgets. Ideally, a new cost-effectiveamount was necessary. Samuel de Champlain was the person who was responsible for ensuring that trade in the New France became permanent. They set up bases at the St. Lawrence River. The French first invaded North America from the west. allianceshould be made for any business to happenas a way of creating amutual connection between the buyer and the seller.6 These mutual interactions involved theassistance of workforce to the group that needed it the most. The Wendat community, also called the Huron, was supported by the French through theprovision of the required soldiers and equipment they fight against Iroquois which assisted strengthen the attachment between them and facilitate more trade to occur in the west.One of the reasons why the deal between the Wendat and the French ceased was because of the competition that had risen in the western sides from the English counterparts. These two countries performed trade differently. The French used the gift policy to lure more Americans to support them. These gifts included license incentives to allow them tofind it easier to work with them.
Ways in which French approach trade and benefits of business
With the provision these incentives, it was possible for the French to integrate more into the Native Americans land thus ensuring they tap all the fur that was flowing to the English companies. In turn,it caused too much harvesting of the fur that stated causing depletion of the resource. This trade has helped change and determine the identity of the Canadians through the building up of connection which was through marriages which led to the arising of a new community by the name Metis that had its Creole.7 Additionally, when these communities dispersed and settled in different regions, it led to the permanent settlement of these communities. This trade between the French and the Wendat has favored both of the communities. One of the ways that it has helped the French is that it helped increase income, and also provide more resources for making materials such as hats. The Native Americans also benefited through the following ways. First, they received resources such as axes, drinks, knives that were in high demand in this region. Also, the region also benefited economically through this trade. Some of these communities that interacted with the French had the advantage of receiving support to fight other communities that affected its survival. Due to so much harvesting of the Fur from animals, it reached a point which it became depleted which made these natives turn on to deerskin. An English owned a company such as the Hudson. As the demand for fur reduced, there rose another form of economy where the natives made robes in the mid-18th century; they were in high demand. However, like any other business, the selling of robes came to an end where these citizens focused more on agriculture which involved grazing cattle and growing crops.8
Differences between French and British form of trade
The French adopted assimilation as a means of cultural influence over indigenous traditions. They emphasized on used fur while the Brits encouraged hunting expeditions to feed the huge demand. The British were less interested in assimilation and emphasized on themilitarization of the aboriginal populations that supported them against French and American rivals.9 The English initially focused on developing trading and military partnerships with the natives. Such relations were ideal considering their occupation of a competitive commercial space. Fur trade supported the production of pricy clothing enjoyed by the elite. Subsequently, the stakes were high for all transacting entities especially due to the capitalist attitude. Although communities such as the Wendat still practiced agriculture, during 1600-1700, thefur trade was the main source of livelihood of these people. However, this came to change as the 19th century neared due to the depletion of fur as a result of too much competition from these two rival groups which made the Native Americans return to agriculture. The British and the French conflicted as a result of theinvasion of each others territories through military force which resulted in more harvesting and thus depletion. These groups formulated ways of gaining more territories through expansion to other regions that were not yet occupied and claiming them to be theirs with military force. Since the Wendat were more experienced, the French opted to use them to advance their trade projects which angered the Haudenosaunee causing more raids. The main change that has occurred over the 200 years is the depletion of fur trade and conflicts between communities.
Politics behind Hudson Bay Company and the culture of Metis
When sailors from England visited the region, they realised that there was numerous fur available and decided to establish a territory through thecreation of Hudson Bay in 1669.10 When Canadian people moved to the west, they used this company as a way of increasing their chances of succeeding. The gain of themonopoly of the Hudson Bay was through the ideas introduced to the British leaders by two Frenchmen. Other parties refused to explore the new ideas leaving the British to the areas. After gaining control of the Bay, the British to pursue more into the James Bay but were met by the French forces who took control of the area.11 This Companyhad the mandate to perform all activities on behalf of the country of England. The leaders of Hudson Company were against the issue of intermarriages since they thought that it would weaken their control on the Aboriginal people. However, in the North West Company intermarriages were experienced that increased the issue of trade and relationship both business-wise and marital-wise.12 Metis occurred through intermarriages between the French and the Native Americans which came about with the rise of a new language.13
Effects of trade in the west
The French initially monopolised the fur trade. The arrival of English traders escalated the competitive trade environment,and American interests accompanied by themilitarization of allied aboriginal societies. 17th-century trading thrived on thediscovery of thenew source of fur and positive relations with natives.14 Subsequent ties were characterized with theconflict between trade companies as the scarce supply diminished further. Ultimately, Motivation of violence result of desperate quest during the fall of the18th century. Aboriginal societies enjoyed closer markets in the Northern region,butthe West did not share their sentiments. The West projected hostility towards fur traders mainly from the 18th century.15 They felt that the moral standing of foreign traders was questionable and theexistence of unlimited populations challenged their dominance as an ethical community. Westerners prioritized expanding their geographical confines and felt that Europeans limited such success without offering assistance to achieve subject goals. The natives experienced an attitude change towards fur traders from welcoming to theelimination of non-aboriginal residence. Aboriginal communities detested the workings of European and associated influences at the West that led to war. Conflict purposed to address the control over resources alongside liberation from societal corruption. The impact o...
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