During the period both America and Russia did not confront directly using the military. As a result, in 1953 Russia sent military troops to help preserve East Germany communist rule, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Afghanistan. The United States contributed in overthrowing of the Guatemala left-wing government in 1954. Also, the U.S was not successful in invading Cuba in 1961 but succeeded in the Dominican Republic and Grenada. However, it was unsuccessful to prevent North Vietnam communist rule in South Vietnam.
Both the United States and Russia viewed popular culture as a means to win the European influence during the Cold War. As a consequence, the culture was considered as a factor that will facilitate their political agenda. America promoted its culture in the European nations through government-sponsored cultural exports. The Soviet Union supported their own culture through propaganda that was disseminated carefully. In turn, America funded a radio program that was used to counter the communist propaganda. Also, Russia promoted their alternative radio programming that was under their control.
The Cold War escalated in 1952 after the U.S. developed the first hydrogen bomb the Russians accomplished the nuclear competition nine months later when they exploded their first bomb. The accomplishments were the aims of Russia to compete with America technological nuclear development race. The war was continued by Nikita Khrushchev after the death of Joseph Stalin. In September 1953 Khrushchev became the Soviet Communist Party Leader. In 1955 the battle for the military race between the two countries, Russia formed the Warsaw Pact. It was a military alliance of the communist countries that was aimed to counter NATO threat. Therefore, the battle leads to the Open Skies between the two countries.
The Cold War developed when the United States developed the U2 spy planes that fly over Moscow. The spy planes were designed to operate at high altitudes to ensure they were out of range from the Soviet radar. The economic strategy was applied during the Cold War with the signing of The Treaty of Rome. The treaty was signed by Europe nations to establish the European Community to form a joint market. Hence, it resulted in the expansion of the European free trade zone through the establishment of the Coal and Steel Community in Europe.
The economic development strategies suppressed the Soviet Union communism agenda across Europe. Therefore, the U.S. took the lead to establish its economic development beyond its borders. Russia launched the Sputnik the first object developed by man to orbit the earth. The technological advancement was countered by the U.S through establishing NASA. The NASA program was aimed to win the space race between the two superpower countries. In the1970s, the two countries signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) to ease the Cold War tension. The agreement saw the two countries to limit the number of their antiballistic missiles that are capable of carrying nuclear weapons. President Regan continued the fight against communism during his presidency. Russia political ideology was viewed as a threat to freedom to states around the world. The Regan administration provided military and financial aids to governments that were fighting against communism. Also, President Regan proposed a strategic defense initiative. The policy was used in developing nations that were fighting against the formation of communist governments. However, during the Presidency of Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985 he took charge of the office while the country was undergoing economic problems. Russia introduced policies aimed to promote political openness and economic reform.
The battle that was non-violent between the communist and capitalist government has already taken place during the reign of President Regan and Gorbachev. President Gorbachev policies allowed freedom of speech and reforms to improve their economic growth. In 1987, the two presidents signed the Intermediate Nuclear Forces Arm Limitation.
The treaty was meant to ensure that the two countries to dispose of the nuclear missiles in their possession. The new Congress by Gorbachev brought to end the communist control.
In 1989, all the communist regions in the European area replaced the communist government with ones that were elected in a democratic election. The U.S. influence in Europe contributed to the development of the Chinese Communist and applying the political theories of European states to enable China to shape its future. During the period that China was moving towards modernity after the failed leadership of Mao-era, its policies were based on the Western Europe capitalism. The adoption of these policies was as a result of the collapse of the relationship of Russia and China during the reign of Mao. China influenced how the Cold War between Russia and America was going to end since it had a huge economic impact around the world. Accordingly, its adoption of the capitalist political theory resulted in the failure of the Russia ideology based on communism.
The capitalist system by the United States was able to suppress the Russia communist agenda. The superiority of the U.S. was viewed on its ability to develop weapons that were superior compared to Russia. Also, the economic growth was experienced through its increase in the GDP. However, the communism decline in Russia was mostly caused by the problems it faced both at home and abroad. Therefore, the administration of President Regan and Gorbachev played a role to end the long non-violence war that helped to shape the world at large. Countries around the world follow the American capitalist system that encourages democratic elections, freedom of speech and rights to all people.
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