The reasons for a change are very diverse. Triggers can be from the center of the organization, but can also be from the outside. This can involve both opportunities and risks. The triggers are as individual as the organizations themselves. Thus, very successful companies are forced to re-establish themselves completely because of their success. Many companies initially grew so quickly that they were in a short time turned out to multinational organizations. Therefore, employees had to integrate into the organization. Founding group with informal communication structures had to be structurally and formally repositioned because the old processes simply no longer fit. Currently, the number of suppliers is shrinking again (Mikkelsen, 2012).
Because people oppose opposing trends, changes are often not in the forefront, but only when the change pressure is so great that this fact can no longer be suppressed. Risks and threats from outside are usually also associated with high time pressure. There are changes in private, social, economic and professional areas and have quite different faces. An idea of this diversity is provided by the megatrends and their effects on the work environment. These great trends include globalization and regionalization, technological developments, social and environmental changes and other species (Stockdale, & Crosby, 2004). All these trends have significant organizational, professional and personal effects.
Organization are subjected to permanent changes in democratization, industrialization, secularization, information, services and leisure society, demographic changes that affect both the interplay in the different social groups as well as the demands of employees to executives in organizations. O'Meara, (2015) argues that new social groups are emerging and changing the demands on the state and the state society. For example, the importance and composition of religious communities change in a country. This has an impact on the public life, on donor flows and the intercultural competence of the citizens this country.
Traditional gender roles are changing (for example women are increasingly taking over professional management responsibility and men take educational tasks reinforced) that leads to emergence of new family models (Hetzner, Heid, & Gruber, 2015). The growing individualization is at the same time part of the driving force of a comprehensive society changing values. We have more and more liberties compared to before 50 years; the individual can and must make more life choices alone. By virtue of the economization of society will make these increasingly under financial aspects. New parties emerge; established parties turn to new electoral strata that in some instances lead to deep resentment or resistance among employees.
It is essential to note that resistance to change can be found at all levels of the company hierarchy. Changes in social relationships occur in the wake of technical or organizational measures leads to resistance in technical rather than in the organizational measures themselves. Changes lead to a disturbance of the (quasi-stationary) mental balance and to a feeling of loss of control. Resistance to change is not always directly expressed, but is often rationalized by pseudo-logical arguments (Rubin, 2007).
Healey, (2005) argues that in consideration on the social, economic, and soon private consequences on climate change: in Norway, wine is cultivated, thanks to mild winters. On the way to the north, storms and hailstones are a burden on the security and financial security institutions (such as insurance companies). Of the warlike disputes not to mention scarce natural resources such as, water. All of these changes in social life each generation have its own experiences, from which their behavior feeds. The post-war generation strongly depends on security thinking and striving for material prosperity, today life balance and health are high in the course, while through the jungle of the terms other populations are confronted with growing material hardship. This has an impact on the supply chain and the production of companies and creates tensions in society.
The political system in which a person lives also attributes to deep resentment or resistance among employees. For instance, after the peaceful revolution as a GDR citizen, they suddenly travel to the whole world and soon afterwards the entire GDR system had disappeared (Zafar, & Naveed, 2014). Millions of people had to reorient themselves both politically and socially. The demographic development in the industrialized countries ensures that the existing social systems no longer work. For example, there are few workers in relation to retirees. However, organizations age differently: the traditional age roles are getting less and less, older workers are much more agile and start with the end of professional life. Through new life phases or grinding results in a multigraphy which replaces the linear biography of the industrial age (Zafar, & Naveed, 2014). The consequences of the trends are always to be considered individually and are always shaped according to the specific situation of an organization.
Changes in the economy also contribute to resentment and resistance among employees. The economy is changing rapidly. The term "globalization" is a multitude of individual changes, each of which already has great effects. For example, international interconnections increase the rate of change (even in times of relative stability). Markets are gradually being opened up all over the world. This creates on the regional markets competition and performance. Young people are increasingly willing to look for opportunities for development in national borders. In the globalization trend, intercultural understanding is required, to work successfully towards common objectives; where objective is missing, the success of the company endangered. Organizations are increasingly active around the world and take advantage of the respective country or continent (Hellerstein, Neumark, & McInerney, 2007).
The individual interpretation of the proposed change plays a fundamental in its implementation and therefore in the emergence of reactions of resistance or support. The perception is "the cognitive precursor to the behaviors of resistance or support to a change. Employee perceptions can facilitate or undermine effectiveness of a change intervention. If the results of the changes are linked to the perceptions of individuals, then the role of communication and motivation becomes essential.
The study of resistance to change from the point of view of the recipients of change seems to be relevant because individual perceptions can help to understand behaviors in the process of implementing change. There is a strong relationship between positive outcomes of change and a propensity to act as a change. In the same way, we assume that the representation of representations negative to stimulate a propensity to oppose the proposed change.
Since employees simply do not know how the changed working situation will look after this change, every change brings fear. With older employees more skeptical than with disciples employees, employees have been habitats since the beginning of our time - and changes simply fit to us. For this reason, the employees must be involved as early as possible, as intensively as possible, with every change. The process that leads to a solution must be designed in such a way that the employees consider this process as fair. This translates that a manager should give the employees a suitable ground at least to be heard.
Moreover, a manager should note that there is not only resistance in the case of big changes, but also in normal day-to-day operations. Employees are openly or face-to-face against something (for example, a rule) or against someone (for example, a superior). Especially in the case of (deep) organizational transformation processes, the resistance to innovations plays an important and frequently underestimated role. Kato, (2014) therefore point out that the constructive approach to resistance must be perceived at an early stage, recognized in time, appropriately responded, and appropriately processed - of decisive importance for the realization of a change project.
If an organization changes, then an organization that is in equilibrium is to be further developed, and these are then again in equilibrium (Li, Holm, & Lindgren, 2015). Employees become skeptical first when changes are pending, and in the change phase the employees are then promised "the blue one from heaven, which creates (too high) euphoric expectations. Accordingly, the employees are disappointed, although the change has brought the organization to a higher new level of equilibrium.
The internal helix (the personal change process) must be accompanied by the external helix (organizational change process). Theses on resistance to changes are a constituent part of human life and an increasingly necessary part of human labor. In the introduction of changes in the world of work, there is a fundamental resistance a concept that managers should note.
To a Chinese sage, rigidity denoted death, and flexibility implied life. So as a manager in an organization, have to consider a number of factors to survive these new times and circumstances, they will have to be more and more flexible.
During organizational transformation, the leader's management needs to look at the instrumental technical aspect also take into the account the peoples emotional aspect. By focusing on the on the helpful technical aspect, the leaders have to focus on the structures, proper systems, processes, technologies and reward in place such that the work setting motivates, sustains and supports people in their transformation efforts. This issue can be addressed through technical and rational approach. Dealing with the technical aspects works better if people and emotional aspect of change are taken into consideration. Zafar and Naveed (2014) indicate that Organizations are made up of people, yet they are less considered when it comes to change. Managers tend to look at the organization productivity rather than seeing that the employees are the reason for the organization's success. Kato (2014) argues that the thought of individuals ought to go before the non-human parts of the organization in any change exertion. Different leaders have different values and convictions values about people, change, and leadership. These enable them to adopt certain beliefs and roles in the management of nominal perspective and the people emotional part of change.
Inside the accustomed leadership and management, it is supposed that leaders are the overall managers of all the operations in an organization and everything has to go by plan. The supposition that all can be controlled stimulates the cognitive that change is an anticipated procedure and leaders need to decide on how a transformation effort will turn out. The leader is required to be part of establishing a transformation through a top-down process and overseeing through the definite well-ordered arrangement. This introduces a significant part of the organizational change writing underlining the means that leaders ought to take or the practices they ought to show to drive transformations. In a transformation setting, the leader assumes the part portrayed as one who sets the pace for others and anticipates their case.
The leader has to be aware of what is correct and essential for the organization, and if the people are educated, they will adapt to the change plan. The aim of change leadership is for the leaders to overcome resistance from people in the organization and be able to make them act and think differ...
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