Pathogenicity refers to the potentiality of an infective medium to give rise to illness. In other words, this means that the infectious agents end up causing harm to the host which could be particular shrubs, animals and any other bacterial or fungal breeds (Verdier, et al. 476). Some of the examples of the said pathogenic instruments include microbes, fungi, leeches and toxins among others. The pathogen's ability to generate ill health emanates from the traits obtained in the course of their attempts to thrive in their different hosts. Thus, this essay primarily focuses on pathogenicity in the gut and TH 17 cells.
A given organism's proportion of pathology caused in the host refers to virulence, a phrase usually simultaneously used with pathogenicity. For example, various microorganisms causing illnesses tend to have the ability to yield and discharge poisonous substances that in turn spread into body tissues thereby contending for nourishments. Besides, the pathogenic microbes also finally subdue the whole hosts' immune systems thus leaving them vulnerable to some ailments such as mumps, measles, smallpox and Ebola among others. In particular, the AIDS virus, known as HIV, rapidly attacks and kills some of the smallest structural and functional unit of organisms like the CD4+ T cells, phagocytes, and nerve fibers (Kawabe, et al. 5788).
TH 17 cells refer to CD4+ T lymphocytes which tend to characterize as exceptionally pathogenic in many subversive infections. Furthermore, the stated cells also play an extremely paramount role in the hosts' fortification to ailments resulting from various bacteria and fungi located outside body cells (Symons, et al. 4). The TH 17 cells generate several trademark protein molecules which serve to monitor the immune system known as cytokines. The discussed cytokines comprise several lymphokines which foster macrophages and killer T and B cells as well as other constituents of the immune framework. In particular, the interleukin (IL) - 17A, IL, 21, IL-22 and IL-17F, that necessitate dissemination of the organic copying of the DNA sequence in a gene to mRNA element known as RORyt, for growth (Symons, et al. 5). Moreover, the interleukins also require IL-23 for both their progression and enlargement in size.
The mammalian gut accommodates an array of symbiotic bacteria families which play an important part in several aspects of their hosts' anatomy such as metastasis, the growth of tissues and the development of the immune system. Hence, the TH 17 cells assemble in the human system of digestive organs, commonly termed as the abdomen, where they bring about obstruction deterrence as well as restoration of intestinal tissues affected by pathogens (Tan, et al. 8142). For instance, the CD4+ T cells in the small intestines which encompass a remarkable number of TH 17 cells oversee the production of cytokine IL-17A.
The cytokine serves a crucial role in the pathologic process for immune infections such as the inflammatory bowel and graft-versus-host diseases. Furthermore, the IL-17A also plays a part in inoculating mucosal matter from severe infections. Verdier, et al. (482) posit that this occurs since most of the destructive infectious agents tend to blight hosts, mainly mammals, via mucosal exteriors. However, research conducted by esteemed scholars, (Leppkes, et al. 261), assert that TH 17 cells could also trigger contentious disorders through uncalled for effects of IL-17A and IL-17F.
Kawabe T, Sun S, Fujita T, Yamaki S, Asao A, Takahashi T, et al. Homeostatic Proliferation of Naive CD4+ T Cells in Mesenteric Lymph Nodes Generates Gut-Tropic Th17 cells. The Journal of Immunology. 2017 : 5788-5798.
Leppkes, Moritz, et al. "BasicAlimentary Tract: Rorg-Expressing Th17 Cells Induce Murine Chronic Intestinal Inflammation via Redundant Effects of IL-17A and IL-17F." Gastroenterology, vol. 136, 01 Jan. 2009, pp. 257-267. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2008.10.018.
Symons, A., A. L. Budelsky, and J. E. Towne. "Are Th17 Cells in the Gut Pathogenic or Protective?" Mucosal Immunology 5.1 (2011): 4-6. Web.
Tan, T.G., Sefik, E., Geva-Zatorsky, N., Kua, L., Naskar, D., Teng, F., Pasman, L., Ortiz-Lopez, A., Jupp, R., Wu, H.J., et al. Identifying Species of Yymbiont Bacteria from the Human Gut that, alone, can Induce Intestinal Th17 cells in Mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2016; 113: E8141E8150.
Verdier, Julien and Frank M. Ruemmele. "Molecular Mechanisms and Cell Targets of Th17 Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract: An Innate Sense of Adaptivity." International Reviews of Immunology, vol. 32, no. 5/6, Oct. 2013, pp. 475-492. EBSCOhost, doi:10.3109/08830185.2013.829471.
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