Italy is located in the southern part of Europe, and it is composed of the Italian peninsula and few islands. Italys neighboring countries include France, Slovenia, Austria, San Marino and Switzerland. Italian timeline is comprised of important legal and changes in territories and also changes in political events.
After the Second World War, Italy was made of Christian democracy whereas the opposition was under the rule of Italian communist party. Due to changes in external shock that is the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the Tangentopli scandals, the situation eventually change (Grazia, 636). And this political differences between the international and national politics eventually led to reforms in electoral systems and hence the radical changes in the Italian politics which involved the scrapping of Christian democracy and the communist party. The major events that took place in Italy in the 20th century included the birth of the first republic, which took place between until 1992. Moreover, a peace treaty was signed which was meant to provide a few alterations to Italys relationship with France. It also provided specifications on how the eastern outskirt zone will be exchanged to Yugoslavia, and the region around the city of Trieste was assigned a free domain. The region was then divided among Italy and Yugoslavia.
Economic growth was realized in Italy in the early 1960s and most individuals and families invested largely in buying consumer goods and durables, most of them being their first time to acquire such. Families and individuals owning electronics raised immensely by then. The Per capita income also snowballed in Italy than in any other nation in the European Union.
Christian democracy lost their support steadily under the first republic. The societies became more modernized, and the values of the traditions became not that appealing to the people in the country. Options were tabled for the extension of the parliamentary majority is an opening for the social party which had moved to the communists from a total subordination. The people who proposed such a coalition were in dire need of structural reforms that would otherwise have created a modernized social democracy.In 1960 the attempt by the Christian Democrats for incorporation of the MSI (Italian social movement) in Tambroni government brought about violence and riots and finally he suffered defeat.
Since the 1990s, there have been two types of a coalition government that involved the politics of post-war in Italy. The first one involved the Centrists a coalition under the rule of Christian democratic party in connection with other small parties. That is the PSI, PRT, and PLI. The PSI and PCI were excluded by the first government ever in Italy that was democratic, and this led to a political period that was referred to as the centrist government which ruled the Italian politics over from the year 1948 to the year 1963. The second version of the coalition government formed was the Centre-left which included the DC-PSI-PRI-PSDI, and it participated in Italian politics that came about in the year 1963 when the Christian Democrats and the PSI which was formerly on opposition joined hands with the government. This coalition was amazing, and it lasted for almost 12 years form the year 1964 to the year 1976.
The coalition was then revived in the in the 1980s, and again lasted until the early 1990s, the center-left government during its first year put into consideration wide measures which were aimed at the social partys needs for its governing coalition with the other party which was the Christian Democrats. The measures included taxing profits gained from the real estates and of dividends obtained form shares, increasing pensions for a group of working individuals, provision of a unified secondary institution with attendance that was mandatory until the age of 14. The electric power industry was also nationalized which eventually led to an increase of individual demanding for products The PSI also made requests to the government to take into consideration the welfare services provided, hospitals among many others including the agrarian structure. Italy led by Muriel Grindrod during the Centre-left government; the social security was enhanced to reach all people who were previously not covered.
University examinations were done in 1965, despite all the important changes that the government had taken initiatives on, the reforms were eventually lost as this led to the loss of momentum for tackling the bigger problems. The problems included the mafia issue, inequalities and inefficient services offered. In 1963 the Ciaculli massacre occurred in settlement areas in Palermo in which a car bomb killed seven security personnel .security officers that were sent to detonate the bomb were called by unknown individuals and this made the Italian parliament vote for a law to create an Antimafia commission in December 1962.This massacre had occurred during the first war on Mafia in 1960, in which the bomb was targeting the head of the mafia commission.
The rapid growth in urban areas and the booming business of heroin in North America is what the mafia was endlessly fighting to control. The situation of the struggle was ferrous, and it led to the death of 68 people between 1961 and 1963.The Antimafia commission eventually presented their report in the year 1976, and by then, the mafias had created a relationship with the political world. The agency SIFAR intelligence was transformed to SID following a coup detat that was aborted. The aborted coup detat was supposed to give strength to Carabinieri who below General De Lorenzo.
The rising left-wing appraisal challenged the balance of the society of Italians.in early 1968, students unrest known as sessantotto' occurred. This development was portrayed by such heterogeneous occasions as rebellions by jobless workers on farms (Avola, Battipaglia 1969), social agitation in the large Northern manufacturing plants (1969 autunno caldo, hot autumn). The protests that students were involved particularly shook Italy in the 1969 auto no clado and led to the occupying of fiat a factory near Turin.in the year 1968, clashes were witnessed at a university called La Sapienza.
Students protests in the 1960s and 1980s
The movement of students protests extended into the 1970s .all the universities form Pisa, Torino and Turin were all occupied .alternative culture began, and lifestyle dominated the youths, and even the lectures were challenged. The whole generation of the youths then was radicalized, and they challenged everything from the church and also from the communist party without leaving aside the consumer society and also the power of tradition in families.
The movement created slogans. However, it fell under shadows of small and ideological groups use perceived violence as a means of communication their informations. After that, another group of students then came in to picture, and it was known as the autonomic.Automania Operaria used a strong strategy whereas other branch movements who were known as the metropolitan Indians proved to be exciting and creative.The enemy left to them was the traditions alone. The trade union forefronts were then shouted and attacked. Some followers of the movements, unfortunately, carried guns and carried out ritualistic and very violent demonstrations in the year 1977 this was very sad and proved unsuitable to the general public.
The government then stepped in and arrested a huge pack of the student leaders in 1979 whereas others had flown overseas so that they could escape trials. The group called autonomic risen again in the early 1980s and came to address issues on the environment, protest against the lack of enough affordable housing and finally to set up spaces (social centers).
A feminist movement based in the United States also came into Italy in the mid-1970s .the movement challenged hard catholic morals in the society and the legal system in the country that rewarded women with little protection against oppression by their male counterparts, rape and sometimes even murder.
The male dominance in politics and even in the political movements in the left was also challenged by the feminists. The feminists movement championed for a referendum in the 1980s and 1970s based on divorce and abortion in which they won. Cultural and social changes eventually became embraced in the Catholic Church. The 2nd Vatican council that was in place between 1962 and 1965 provided a liberation and partial democratization in the church.
Terrorism and politics
Political instability ensued, and terrorism took part in the 1970s. This duration was attributed to widespread conflicts and acts of terrorism that were carried out by the extra movements of the parliament, for example, the famous red brigades that were initialized by Renato Curcio. The abduction and the progressive assassination of the democratic community minister Aldo in the year 1978 .the death of the prime minister led to an end of historic compromise.
Based on the perception of parallel convergences that involved the democratic community and the PCI. Enrico who was a communist was moving away from influence from Russians and came up with communism. The PCI instead became more of a reformist instead being a revolutionary party. The collapse of the social, economic and the political stability of Italy in 1969 was raising an eyebrow, and all this led to terrorism .previously, most of the acts of violence were being undertaken by the neofascist that were backed and then armed by few members who were serving in the security division.
The neofascist then began to plant bombs and then derailing trains as one of their ways of creating tensions to undermine the advancements in labor carried out in the year 1969-1972 and then to encourage a coup at the right wing.
This strategy led to bombings in Milan and also in Rome in December 1969. A bomb in Milan bank led to the killing of 16 people and left more than 90 people injured. The suspicion by police officers fell on the anarchists.one of the two anarchists then died. This cases led to the radicalization of students and workers .many people who were on the right side then started to believe the type of statement put in front by the police and state while different people had a different opinion and they saw it as a mixture of false stories to cover up.
The failure of the state to apprehend those who were responsible then facilitated increased dissatisfaction of people with authority. The emergence of a report that police had neglected a report suggesting that the neofascist were responsible this led to increased tensions until, 1984. One of the anarchists Valpreda was then jailed in the 1980s.
The deadliest attack then occurred in August 1980 when a full waiting room at Bologna station to passing over to 85 people and later neofascists were held responsible. Many young people were not happy with the United States foreign policy, the weaknesses of their government and the recent collaboration, were the Christian Democrats and communists had collaborated in their country by the mid-1970s and they were all attracted by the left wing. Red terrorists then came up, and it began by kidnapping the supervisors of factories for some time. After that, they started kidnapping the top officials in the country including the judges politicians and even journalists. They eventually became popular on the far left. Red brigades killed Aldo Moro.
During the 1980s, two were being managed by republicans the first one being in 1981-82 by Giovanni Spadolini and in 1983-1987 by a socialist called Bettino Craxi instead of a Christian Democrat. This came about by another socialist also being elected as a resistance leader, whereas Sandro was elected to be the president of the Republic o...
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