Essay Example on Models of Policing

Published: 2021-08-07
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Middlebury College
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Standard Model of Policing

It is the pioneer of the current modes of policing since it is said to have served for over 60 years. The standard model of policing drives the current ways of policing since most of the aspects in hotspot policing closely borrow concepts of the standard model of policing. This model of policing was introduced to feature the replacement of random beat policing that showed very little evidence or effective crime-fighting methods. The second reason was that Rapid Response strategy that involves the use of the 911 calls show little effectiveness since it sometimes leads to the apprehension of suspects (Sergi, 2015). Rapid Response is said to offer apprehension for burglary and hot robbery. It was, to the public notice that the actual response of the police takes quite long to counterattack the problem reported. Therefore, standard model policing refers to all the aspects of improving the four categories of policing that include generalized investigations of crime, the random patrol, Rapid response to emergency calls and applied intensive enforcement.

Community Model of Policing

Community policing is a program that develops a common ground for the police and the community to understand each other. To minimize the occurrences of juvenile mischiefs, adults criminal practices, and any different uncouth behavior the community members should know the police and familiarize with them to be free to communicate any social or domestic disorder among people. On evaluating a partnership between the police and citizens, statistics show that when people interact more with the police, they the people do not hesitate to report any planned crime and most people usually avoid engaging in criminal acts due to fear of destroying their friendship with the police (Sergi, 2015). Therefore, community policing is an arena for prevention of crimes in since the government will handle the social evils that happen in the society in a friendly way.

Hot Spot Policing

Hot spots policing is a crime prevention program that involves concentrating police officers in small areas especially in urban areas that show a high prevalence of crimes. They focus on relatively small geographical locations that are connected to highly predictable crimes that are usually within the range of one year. Hot spot policing is believed and tested to minimize the occurrence of crimes in the affected areas and other places in urban areas. Also, Rosenfeld, Deckard and Blackburns (2014) article outlines that deploying police offers in streets, downtowns and major cities enhance surveillance and fight crimes and occurrence of violence. The law enforcement officers usually focus on limited resources that are in the areas that crime occurrence is high. Hotspot policing helps in reducing the total crimes committed in the city hence shows that it is the best approach that can be used alongside community watch groups in the communities that face a high prevalence of crime. The current hot spot policing that certain target places that face high occurrence of crimes applies criminology theory that helps in defining the term place in creating an extensive understanding of crime. The law enforcement agencies, therefore, employ the criminology theory in identifying the places that show the prevalence of crime using diverse formats, point mapping and some form of spatial ellipses.

Third Party Policing

Third party policing refers to the efforts of law enforcement agencies to alleviate the gap that was left by the traditional ways of policing that did not involve the community in reducing crimes that are mostly done by individuals at the community level. The old third-party policing committed acts of compelling respectable citizens to join anti-crime groups with efforts alleviating the crimes committed at the community level. The old third-party policing offered chances of the non-offending groups in the community to stabilize place related behaviors. It involves efforts that coerce or persuade the nonoffending people in the community to perform surveillance that is outside the routine activities of the policing to indirectly minimize the occurrence of crimes and disorderly practices in the society. It applies noncriminal and formal practices using cohesive tools that are against the intermediate non-offending individuals that the society and the law enforcement department believes that they have the power to deal with the crime offenders at the primary level. The coercion used by police officers in the third-party policing helps in creating place guardianship that was absent in the traditional ways of policing. Third party model of policing applies to solve the issues and the gaps in old ways of policing.

2. Theoretical Basis that is Underpinning Hot Spot Policing

The criminology theory that connects the analytical meaning of the term place has diversified the information that crime usually occurs in a small number of criminogenic places. Theoretical framework applicable by criminologists shows that crime is more concentrated in places more than the way it is concentrated in people (Rosenfeld et al., 2014). Therefore, law enforcement officers usually direct their policing methods toward an area that show a high level of crime occurrence as a way of mitigating the spread of the crimes committed in the areas to other places. Therefore, the theoretical idea that crime is concentrated in an area rather than in people helps in grounding certain areas in public using closed circuit television and more patrol police officers to scare away any occurrence of crime.

Crime pattern theory tries to offer some useful explanation of the design of the backdrop environment, and the actual movement of people makes it possible for an increase in the risk of crime. The theory tries to explain that specific characteristics of places offer them a high risk of occurrence of crime. Therefore, it has been found out that technological advances in policing attracted theoretical application which has led to the adoption of hot spot policing approach.

3. Describe how a Community Policing approach would differ from the Standard model in addressing property crime. Use Examples to support your answer.

Community policing only provides ways in which the community and the police organize community meetings to discuss the methods of making the community to be free to associate with the police freely as an approach to enhancing surveillance. Community policing is short of ways to which property crime can be reduced. For that case, it is so difficult to report an emergency connected to property crime without application of the aspects of standard model policing approaches like randomized patrol and rapid response. While Standard Model policing helps in reducing property crimes, community policing is highly effective in offering surveillance over social and domestic crimes that do not need urgency (Rosenfeld et al., 2014). Therefore, Standard Model policing should just be enhanced by increasing the number of police officers so that whenever there is an emergency call to action involving property crime, the police should be deployed evenly and insignificant number to tackle any further effect of crime on the property. For instance, if a group of gang star invades a particular premise with an intention to robe the households, the most appropriate policing approach to be applied is Standard Model policing that will involve calling an emergency police line which will then inform the police about the incident to take cover.


Rosenfeld, R., Deckard, M. J., & Blackburn, E. (2014). The effects of directed patrol and selfinitiated enforcement on firearm violence: A randomized controlled study of hot spot policing. Criminology, 52(3), 428-449.

Sergi, A. (2015). Divergent mind-sets, convergent policies: Policing models against organized crime in Italy and in England within international frameworks. European Journal of Criminology, 12(6), 658-680.


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