When a thought comes in regarding the ancient Egypt,' the dynastic period during which Egypt was one land ruled by a King assumes the thought (Riggs 2010, 1137). The dynastic period started with the reign of King Narmer in 3100 BCE, ending with the death of Cleopatra VII in 30BCE. The dynastic period encompassed nine major periods that were divided into more than 20 dynasties that influenced the people and the land in massive ways. Egypt remained one independent land with common religion, language, culture, arts and customs, a strong centralized rule had been established during this long period and the period of weaker and divided rule caused mainly by foreign occupations.
In 3100 BC, King Nerman found the first Egyptian dynasty, hence creating a start of the Egyptian civilization. During the whole period to 2950 BC, the already created dynasty and a second one ruled the land and started using hieroglyphics. During this period, Hor-Aha was made the capital city of Egypt. At this period, Egypt worshipped many local gods with a human body and an animal head which was later replaced by universal gods. Egypt's most buildings were made of hewn stone, and some stone vessels were produced using stone drills.
During the period 2950 BC 2975 BC, the first pyramid, the Step Pyramid at Saqqara in Egypt is built in commemoration for King Zoster, a king in the 3rd dynasty. Basins are also constructed to hold flooding water from R.Nile. Marshy lands are also reclaimed through digging canals and creating irrigation ditches. Egypt is also consolidated as a united state during this period, and some officials become a distinct class (Parcak 2010, 14). Pharaoh also becomes a god-king in this first dynasty.
During the 2575 BC -2150 BC, the ancient kingdom which includes the 4th-8th dynasties are realized. Pyramids are built at Dahsgur and Giza to represent these kingdoms. During this period, King Unas, the final ruler of the 5th dynasty had his burial area contain magical spells or pyramid texts believed for his afterlife. Their autocratic form of governance changes to a monarchy that increased the power of the people's leaders including priests and high officials (Parcak 2010, 13). The Hieroglyphics also initiates the development of a hieratic script.
2125 BC -1975 BC was the period of the 9th to 11th Egyptian dynasties and a first intermediate period. It was during this period that Egypt realized a breakdown of their entire government. Amenemhet is seen to restrict the power of the nobles. During 1985 BC, there is a pessimistic view of the world with Amenemhet realized to be murdered and hence, some inscriptions to record services that were to be held after his death. Painted figurines are made to modeled ships to act as gifts to the already dead.
The period 1975 BC -1640 BC, known as a period of the middle kingdom, represented the 11th-14th Egyptian dynasties. At this period, Amenemhet overthrows Mentuhotep III. King Senusret III also wins Canaan and Nubia. Egypt exchanges culture with Mesopotamia with Egyptian culture losing its religion and bourgeois in 1750 BC CITATION Jos16 \l 1033 (Mark). A second intermediate period also happens where the state dismantles leading to divided political parts. The Hyksos who invade Egypt rule northern Egypt while the southern part is left to the Egyptian rule.
During the 1630 BC -1520 BC timelines, the second intermediate period happens, and Hyksos are dispelled from Egypt by Ahmose I despite their powers over the northern leading to the reunification of Egypt. Egyptians, therefore, continue to enjoy cultural sophistication and development of art (Riggs 2010, 1137).
In the 1400s, Egypt reaches its maximum powers when an additional Mediterranean sea was brought to the Egyptians to rule. Art traditions are abandoned in Asiatic influences, and the culture flourishes with time. Asiatic enemies also become victories and hence, the need not to build any more pyramids. In 1450 BC, Thutmose III orders the destruction of reliefs and the inscriptions made showing Hatshepsut as their King.
Between 1539 BC and1075 BC tombs for the valleys of kings are build and a new kingdom is established for the 21st dynasty. The people start worshipping a sun god named Aten, among them, the King and develop a reformed and powerful permanent army.
The third intermediate period 1075 BC - 715 BC becomes a period of misfortunes since the Nubians/Ethiopians later conquer Egypt CITATION Jos16 \l 1033 (Mark). There is a renaissance of an ancient art reform of the land. Later in the period 715 BC - 332 BC, Egypt is dangerous and becomes habitable without resistance. However, in 380 BC, Greek mercenaries are hired in the fight against Persia, creating a win that unites Egyptians again. Egypt hence, becomes independent, making a settlement out of the Assyrian life and culture.
A series of things happened in 332 BC. Egypt is conquered by Alexander the great who occupies the land without resistance and its general and makes a dynasty. During this time, Greek culture widely spreads, an Alexander library is founded, and the light greenhouse makes him famous. The great Lighthouse of Alexandria was one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Alexander is also consecrated as the son of Amen.
In 197 BC, a stone known as the Rosetta is curved in both Egyptian and Greek to signify the loss of the Palestine. Both demotic scripts and hieroglyphics are used on the Rosetta, and these led to the decipherment of the Egyptian later in 1822 (Riggs 2010, 1137). Cleopatra Marc Anthony dies in the 30 BC, and Egypt becomes a human province and battles until they lead the Roman rule. At this point, Alexander is important for the trade route regarding the orient and huge luxuries are demanded highly in Rome. In the AD 50, Christianity prevails for Alexandria and Egyptians tend to accept the religion as another cult although resisted during debates. Between the years 215-250, Roman citizenship is granted to all Egyptians, elevated taxes are felt, civilian and military revolts are showcased, and Christians suffer from prosecution yet Christianity prevails all over Egypt. Until the year 639, Egypt was under the Byzantine rule. Until 1250, Arabs ruled the country, this being the first phase of the Islamic invasion. The capital was established at Cairo after the success of Ismaili Shi'a from Tunisia.
In 1252, Bahris increased the powers of the country, building the then capital, Cairo from a small town as it was to a large city. The sacking of Baghdad was one milestone towards the transformation of Cairo into a central city of Islam. Just before modern Egypt and after the French were expelled later in the 1880s, and Ali tried to pull out Egypt of Ottoman's hands until the year 1882 when the British invaded the country, making it a de facto protectorate of the UK. Modern Egypt then develops from 1882 to present where there are negotiations between the US and the Muslim world.
Mark, Joshua J. Ancient Egyptian Government. 13 10 2016. 4 12 2017 <https://www.ancient.eu/Egyptian_Government/>.
Parcak, Sarah. The Physical Context of Ancient Egypt. A Companion to Ancient Egypt, Dec. 2010, pp. 122., doi:10.1002/9781444320053.ch1.Riggs, Christina. Ancient Egypt in the Museum: Concepts and Constructions. A Companion to Ancient Egypt, Dec. 2010, pp. 11291153., doi:10.1002/9781444320053.ch49.
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