The findings of the study are acceptable in the larger scope of nursing as they articulate the implications of age and gender on both pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. By using individuals of a single ethnicity, the study mitigates against the risks of having differential reasons in people of different ethnicity. Additionally, by controlling alternative confounding factors such as weight and healthiness, the study effectively attains its purpose of investigating age and gender influences on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. By using healthy individuals that meet specific weight standards, the study was able to make viable conclusions regarding the effect of the drug, Ticagrelor.
In addition, the studys findings are applicable to the field of nursing and pharmacology as they speak to the accepted effects of age and gender on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. The results are specifically applicable to other types of drugs whose metabolism occurs in the P450 system in the same manner as Ticagrelor. Without a doubt, the studys applicability to the field of nursing draws from its congruence with established nursing principles concerning the effect of physiologic differences between women on men on drug activity. It is generally accepted that lower body weight alongside relatively slower rates of glomerular filtration, gastrointestinal motility and lower intestinal enzymatic activity significantly affect pharmacokinetics in women and older individuals. Such physiologic differences between men and women can explain the differences in Ticagrelor activity. Specifically, these differences can explain why the study discovered greater plasma concentrations of Ticagrelor and its predominant metabolite in older men and women (Teng, Mitchell & Butler, 2012).
The study makes notable implications applicable to the field of nursing. Specifically, the study demonstrates that a number of factors can influence the distribution of drugs in the body, including age and gender. This is perhaps because age and gender influence critical elements such as the capacity of plasma to bond to protein, the volume of plasma, body mass index (BMI), and body composition. These elements significantly influenced by age and gender. Perhaps the greatest significance of this study is to point out that health care professionals such as nurses must take into consideration these factors and differences when calculating bolus or loading dosages. In addition, the study further demonstrates the need for further investigations into factors that can affect both pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. For instance, there is a need for further studies to determine the impact of both age and gender on the pharmacodynamics multiple doses.
The implications of the present study are instrumental in informing future studies, as well as providing a basis on which pharmaceutical companies and health care providers can look into tailoring doses to individual patients. On the large-scale, the value of such investigation and discovery can mitigate issues related to providing over doses or under doses to patients based on their specific body and health conditions, as well as needs. Undoubtedly, this study specifically has significant implications for the management of cardiovascular drugs, especially P450 drugs given that it relates specifically to these drugs (Teng, Mitchell & Butler, 2012). The study is beneficial to health care providers who deal with these drugs as it implies that there are substantial practice implications associated with giving out uniform doses of P450 drugs irrespective of the patients age and gender.
Teng, R., Mitchell, P., & Butler, K. (2012). Effect of age and gender on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a single ticagrelor dose in healthy individuals. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 68, 11751182.
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