The past decades have been characterized by numerous innovative transformations, including the switch from the analog realms to a more advanced world and from concentrated wired solutions to robust wireless frameworks. Specifically, the advent of minimal effort and low-control handsets, together with the improvement of compact size and open standard stacks, have facilitated wireless sensor networks (WSNs). WSNs have been used in home, office, and mechanical applications. Today, the most imperative objective is to test, gather and break down each snippet of data around us, keeping in mind the end goal to enhance production effectiveness and guarantee ideal resource utilization. Subsequently, the Internet of Things (IoT), which refers to the ability to connect devices to the World Wide Web offers a plausible solution to the above-mentioned demand. The substantial measure of data that is thus produced could be productively dealt with utilizing cloud administrations, such as adaptable and capable programming systems proficient to convey computing as a service. Consequently, this research paper seeks to discuss the concept of bridging wireless sensor networks with the internet.
Keywords: wireless sensor networks (WSN), Internet of Things (IoT), internet, mobile communication.
Bridging Wireless sensor networks with the Internet
Heightened technological innovations and developments have seen wireless networks become an integral part of todays technology sectors. The development of Wireless Sensor Network is further mirrored by extensive research and case studies. This developing interest can be credited to new applications empowered by extensive scale systems of small gadgets equipped for harvesting data physically, performing basic handling on the separated information and transmitting it to remote areas. The gadgets, known as sensors or motes, have made conceivable this boundless effect, as they persistently develop in processing capabilities and transfer speed and the meantime reducing in size. The radical changes brought by wireless sensor networks seem to be an onset of an exceptionally advanced innovation, which in the long run will connect cities and nations, as a piece of the Internet of Things (IoT) framework (A.Flammini & E.Sisinni, 2014).
Furthermore, with the improvement of a sensor, wireless mobile systems, installed framework and distributed computing, the innovations of the IoT have been broadly utilized as a part of logistics, Smart Meter, security, and intelligence (Zhu, Wang, Chen, & Liu, 2010). As a result of its gigantic market prospects, IoT has been given careful consideration by a few governments everywhere throughout the world, which is viewed as the third flood of innovation after Internet and mobile communication hence the significance of taking a gander at the bridging of wireless sensors and the internet. Connecting between remote sensor systems with conventional communication systems or Internet, IoT Gateway assumes an imperative part in IoT applications, which encourages the consistent incorporation of wireless sensor systems and mobile correspondence systems or the Internet, and the administration and control with wireless sensor systems (Alami & Najid, 2016). The IoT is viewed as an important aspect of Information Technology which is portrayed by more intensive sense and measure, more extensive interoperability and insight. The advancements of the IoT can adequately bolster the production processes, and service delivers, the integration of the physical world to the digital domains. With the improvement of IoT advances, the most imperative IoT application regions cover framework development, security, condition assurance, present-day farming, intelligence, urban administration, and business management.
The idea of the IoT was initially proposed in 1999, by the MIT Auto-ID Labs which endeavor to acknowledge object localization and state acknowledgment utilizing WSNs and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification Technologies) (Atzori, Iera, & Morabito, 2010). In 2005, International Telecommunication Union (ITU) released 'ITU Internet Report 2005: Internet of Things', formally proposed the idea of the Internet of Things, which noticed the onset of the global Internet of Things communication, in which all transfer of data among all objects was possible items on the global spectrum. In 2009, IBM proposed the "Smart Planet" idea which focused on integrating sensors in a few physical items like the power grid, railroad, structures, and influence them to be shrewd by smart handling technologies. From innovation, Internet of Things is an enormous worldwide data framework made out of several millions of items that can be recognized, detected and handled based on institutionalized and interoperable communication conventions. With the help of broadband mobile correspondence, next age systems administration and cloud computing innovations, the IoT framework can wisely process the items' state, give services and control to basic leadership, and indeed, even influence them to collaborate with each other self-governing without human's mediation (Liu, Cui, & Chen, 50-65).
In light of the present-day increased global innovation, IoT is regarded as the future of Information Technology. Given that idea and the steady improvement of Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), this paper clarifies and executes a contextual analysis of IoT and WSN. The usage coordinates the systems administration capacities of a WSN, a remote neighborhood and a cell phone gadget, in a request to accomplish an observing administration and following portability of objects for the reasons for the future Internet of Things administrations. The objective is to make a service, or a way that one will have the capacity to comprehend and screen a person's development inside a house. Toward the end, new ideas and thoughts for future work will be introduced.
This research was conducted through a qualitative method and verified through triangulation of data collected. By verifying data from various sources and methods, this method bolstered the results and conclusions of this research hence ensuring its validity. The main methods, therefore, included observation and visual analysis. The qualitative research methods were all inclined the primary research question; how can wireless sensor networks be bridged with the internet? Furthermore, the research adopted inductive reasoning and theoretical sampling techniques which further ensured its validity.
Outcomes of the research
The common IoT application architecture can be classified into three distinct layers;
a) Perception Layer.
In the recognition layer, the framework intends to gain, gather and process the information from the physical world, which comprises of two sections: the sensor gadget and the wireless sensor network. The previous one incorporates RFID mark, sensor hubs, and camera. The latter is a self-arranging wireless system which comprises of numerous sensor hubs disseminated in a vast zone. These gadgets coordinately screen the condition of the physical environment. In points of interest, the observation layer gathers the information through information procurement gadget at first, and after that, the information is exchanged to the following layer utilizing RFID, Bluetooth or different innovations. Most importantly, this layer is the premise of IoT framework with basic advances including signal recognition and short-extend radio innovation.
b) Transmission Layer
In the transmission layer, the framework means to move information in a huge territory or long separation, which is built in light of the conventional portable broadband communication organize, Wi-Fi and other communication advancements to understand the mix of the observation furthermore, correspondence organize. Consequently, the information gathered from discernment layer can be exchanged effectively to wireless goal. Long-extend wired and wireless communication advances, arrange systems are imperative in this layer.
c) Application Layer
Data preparing and benefits giving are two noteworthy motivations behind the application layer. The information from transmission layer is taken care of by relating administration frameworks and afterward different administrations will be given to a wide range of clients. This area introduces some underlying execution issues about the IOT Gateway framework.
Remote Sensor Networks (WSNs) is an emerging innovation with such huge numbers of issues and difficulties, and it is fit for making progressed technological solutions for the private, modern what's more, consistently world. Significantly more difficulties will be raised, considering that the innovation becomes faster, the hardware also, equipment is being limited and the desire for ease and accommodation increases as well. This research utilized significant sensing technologies to observe, record and mirror results on how those two can cooperate to actualize a keen home administration inside the domain of WSNs and IoT. After careful testing and accumulation of a few outcomes can be contrived. As a major aspect of the contextual analysis, the dormancy of the detecting of motes can be tested to comprehend and ensure that the best Quality of Service can be accomplished. All through the research up to the last outcomes, a deeper comprehension and learning expects to be achieved and utilized as a future reference to new activities.
The IoT Gateway is a key part of IoT application frameworks, which bridges the Internet and the WSN. This research exhibits a prototyping usage of IoT Gateway in light of GPRS conventions, which acknowledges information sending, convention change, WSN administration, and control. Accordingly, it can be utilized as a part of the keen home, modern checking, condition observing and so on. In future works, it will be imperative to focus on the cutting-edge elements of IoT Portal including shortcoming dealing with and security administration.
In addition, SmartGate provides a feasible solution in the connection of WSN that utilizes receivers to the Internet (Gamm, Sester, & Reindl, 2013). Here, the gateway can develop a coded wake-up signal with includes address data and can send it out with a coordinated 868 MHz handset. It has the capacity of a middle person between the Internet with its TCP/IP protocol and the sensor connect with its wake-up signals and restrictive information bundles. The long wake-up scope of 80 m empowers a solitary SmartGate to cover the correspondence with hubs in a circular region with. The SmartGate represents an adaptable and successful solution to access a system of wireless sensor nodes with wake-up receivers from the Internet.
A.Flammini, & E.Sisinni. (2014). Wireless Sensor Networking in the Internet of Things and Cloud Computing Era. Procedia Engineering, 672-679.
Alami, H. E., & Najid, A. (2016). Gateways Selection for Integrating Wireless Sensor Networks into Internet of Things. Europe and MENA Cooperation Advances in Information and Communication Technologies, 423-430.
Atzori, L., Iera, A., & Morabito, G. (2010). The Internet of Things: A Survey. Computer Networks, 2787-2805.
Gamm, G. U., Sester, S., & Reindl, L. M. (2013). SmartGate connecting wireless sensor nodes to the Internet. Journal of Sensors and Sensor Systems, 45-50.
Liu, Q., Cui, L., & Chen, H. (50-65). Key technologies and applications of Internet of Things. Computer Science, 2010.
Zhu, Q., Wang, R., Chen, Q., & Liu, Y. (2010). IOT Gateway: Bridging Wireless Sensor Networks into Internet of Things. International Conference...
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