Sustainable development defined as the development that adequately meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability to meet the needs of the future generation (Liu 2003, p 465). Key issues addressed by Richard W. Butler begins with clarification made on the need for people to have a clear distinction between sustainable tourism and development of tourism. Furthermore, the paper goes to detail to highlight some of the environmental focus made regarding sustainable tourism and the need to ensure both physical and human environment are protected. Richard W. Butler then explores the problems identified in tourism development and lastly, gives clear guidance on the expected future direction regarding sustainable tourism and likelihood that development of tourism will shift (Butler 1991, p 3). Reil G. Cruz notes that National tourism organizations (NTOs) play a fundamental role in tourism development in the Asean regions. Focused placed on four countries in the Middle East (Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand), he noted by 2000, the four countries in general, had generated approximately US$21 billion (Cruz 2003, p 4) However, with the identified poorly planned tourism in the noted countries there has been environmental and cultural degradation. The tourism sector has notably become a target for reforms in its approach to sustainable development dues to its tremendous impact on the environment and culture. Therefore, Reil G. Cruz emphasizes that NTOs role in ensuring Asean region can apply principles of sustainability is crucial for the region to gain maximum benefits from tourism. Furthermore, he stressed there is need to evaluate on the sufficiency of the suggested measures in attaining sustainable tourism development in the region. Moreover, though suggestions for improving already existing current effort will further give a comprehensive sustainable development of tourism in the area.
Stage 1 approval to proceed. Reil G. Cruz primary objective is to evaluate on NTOs fundamental role in sustainable development in the Asean region. However, critics can be raised the study only covered only four countries (Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand) which are not an adequate representation of the Asean region. Therefore, the stage was not adequately addressed as the information presented was limited to specific areas. Richard W. Butler primary focus is to give a better understanding of the difference between sustainable development and development of tourism. From the distinction, he has adequately been able to present a better policy on how to ensure sustainable development in tourism. Thus the element well presented. Stage 2 writing Reil G. Cruz can be noted to be clear, consistent and direct. The part was fully exploited with the presentation of relevant literature on sustainable development, examples of projects, programs, and activities that NTOs can engage in, challenges expected in the NTOs programs and some of the indicators to monitor sustainability. Therefore, the stage was well executed. Richard W. Butler writing is very comprehensive by offering a step by step guidance from the different assumptions made regarding tourism and how best to ensure it is sustainable in the future. Therefore, the stage is well executed. Step 3 Consultations. Policy writing is an iterative process, and there is the need for discussions in every stage between different stakeholders on the policy implementation (Lewis 2004, p 10). Reil G. Cruz paper faced a major challenge with lack of adequate representation of the local people who are majorly affected. Therefore, the system failed primarily in the absence of adequate representation among different stakeholders. Richard W. Butler has adequately consulted the local participants and the key decision makers regarding tourism. Thus, this presents a comprehensive cover in his policy presentation. Thus the element well executed. Stage 4 document approval. Reil G. Cruz experienced unforeseen official protocol in Malaysia which prohibited research assistant to collect information regarding tourism in the country. Therefore, despite Reil G. Cruz developing recommendations to be implemented by NTOs in the four countries, it was not able to adequately examine Malaysia sustainable tourism practice. Richard W. Butler research has faced little to no document disapprovals given the paper is set on a presumption of peoples mind-set regarding sustainable tourism development. The paper presents more of general assumptions and needed rectifications as opposed to dealing with primary data collected. Thus, the element not well executed as the author heavily depended on secondary data .Stage 5 publication. Publication of the different sustainable tourism projects has been noted by Reil G. Cruz to be a crucial part of the compilation. The stage is well presented with the collection of document laws, guidelines and also some of the best practices noted on sustainable tourism for both dissemination and easy reference. Richard W. Butler presents the paper in a very smooth transition. First, there is the introduction of different assumption and ideologies then the author introduces scientific information. Stage 6 Implementation and communication. Reil G. Cruz proposed policies have explained their valid reason for existence and how the country is expected to benefit from the policies. Furthermore, Richard W. Butler communication channels opened for the system's communication are supposed to give people adequate time to learn the proposed recommendations for sustainable tourism, discuss with others, understand the different items on the agenda and then submit their comments to the relevant authority. Therefore, this stage is adequately present by both Reil G. Cruz and Richard W. Butler. Stage 7 Evaluation and review. Reil G. Cruz paper has clear guidance regarding assessment and consideration of the policies. The national and local steering committees expected to be at the frontline on sustainable tourism development. Moreover, Richard W. Butler in the document notes the best way to establish sustainable development is integrating it into the local community DNA that is in their daily activities, human resources, and connecting tourism projects to poverty alleviation measures (Timur, and Getz 2009, p 230). Therefore, the stage is adequately presented by both authors.
Richard W. Butler main topic is making a clear distinction between sustainable tourism development and development of tourism. This has been achieved with the author exploring different forms of tourism and explaining how they are evolving with time. Noting the problem with sustainable development is not necessarily in the continual introduction of small-scale environmental and culturally appropriate forms of tourism. But understanding how to involve all stakeholders in the tourism industry on dealing with mass tourism development as sustainable as possible. Richard W. Butler has explicitly addressed how many people prefer to deal with environmental focus by exploring the evolution in the green fields, and argue how they can be better managed, but few are willing to help maintain the already existing mature fields (Butler 1991, p 10). Moreover, the author notes many stakeholders prefer to associate with the normal environment matters with the introduction of new forms of tourism. Finally, Richard W. Butler explains there are still significant unresolved issues in sustainable development (Butler 1991, p 5). Therefore, he emphasized the need for all the stakeholders to tackle the issues more so on the already mature tourism sections that have been left unresolved by different implementers. When the national government is ready to work with the local people it has a better chance to ensure sustainable development given the development of tourism is expected to continue (Richards and Hall, 2003, p 260).
Reil G. Cruz input on NTOs relation to sustainable tourism development in the Asean countries has been presented in different activities that revolve around. Ensuring principles of sustainability are integrated into the national tourism plans, there is the development of ecotourism and related tourism products. Also, there is making mass tourism economically sustainable and support for voluntary initiatives for sustainable tourism (Cruz 2003, p 14). However, the key issue noted about sustainable development is the author does not fully expound how the local people contribute to sustainable development despite them being the primary stakeholders in the tourism industry. Moreover, there is need to have a clear inter-link among all the key players in the tourism sector with both top-bottom approach in policy formation and bottom-up response. Reil G. Cruz has further noted the issue of poorly planned tourism department. NTO does not have yet any clear identified indicators for sustainable tourism development. This is a challenge with the expected body to transform the region tourism to be that which can be viable yet to have defined methods to benchmark sustainable tourism development is a significant weakness especially to the policy makers who are primary stakeholders. Another key issue noted is the limitation in local participation which potentially makes it difficult to make adjustments in the strategies in crafting of tourism master. Reil G. Cruz suggests the need to come up with a measure evaluator on sustainable development. This is an excellent way for the countries to evaluate their sustainability methods. However, over the years some of the models developed to evaluate on the environmental and socio-cultural indicators have proved to be too broad or technical and often do not relate with the actual symbols (Byrd 2007, p 5). Reil G. Cruz final issue is in the review to give a comprehensive report on the development of tourism wit NTOs adoption of sustainable tourism paradigm at the national level. However, anticipation is expected with the diffusion of sustainable developments at the local levels to be slow and expectation of interchange of related concepts of community-based tourism, suitable tourism, and eco-tourism confused among different stakeholders (McCool and Moisey 2001, p 460).
About the two papers, Richard W. Butler paper gives a more generalized outlook in issues regarding sustainable tourism and how the various stakeholders often make assumptions (Butler 1991, p 10). This is a fundamental weakness in the journal given it relies more on the secondary data as opposed to primary data. However, Reil G. Cruz provides a more detailed first-hand information regarding sustainable tourism measures and implementations, with the papers exploration of the four countries it is easier to relate to the article. Richard W. Butler offers a step by step guidance on how sustainable tourism can be adequately achieved with a particular interest in mass tourism (Cruz 2003, p 25). However, Reil G. Cruz primary focus is on the development of tourism and little has been discussed on how to deal with mass tourism that is already in existence. Thus, Reil G. Cruz provides a solution to predicted new problems without first exploration of how to address existing problems. Finally, Reil G. Cruz research can potentially be inadequate as it only gives a reference to four countries in the Asean region while Richard W. Butler paper provides a more general outlook of how tourism affects different countries and how sustainable tourism can be ensured.
Upon reflection of the two identified papers, my understanding of tourism has advanced. I can now adequately and confidently site some of the effects of uncontrolled tourism despite the propagation of tourism. Also, I have...
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