Citation Hong, S. C., Merrin, G. J., Peguero, A. A., Gonzales-Prendes, A. A., & Lee, N. N. (2015). Exploring the Social-Ecological Determinants of Physical Fighting in U.S. Schools: What about Youth in Immigrant Families? Child Youth Care Forum, 45:279299.
What is the article about? The article utilizes a sample study of 4288 immigrant students in 9th-12th grade. Researchers used a longitudinal study data set. The sample included students from 70 countries. Additionally, they gathered survey based on national origin, family relationships as well as social and psychological adaptation in ethnically diverse populations. Researchers collected data at three waves. Wave I comprised of 5262 adolescents who were eighth and ninth graders from 77 nationalities in Miami and San Diego schools. After three years, researchers conducted a Wave II survey, which consisted of 4288 students who were eleventh and twelfth graders. As well, wave III consisted of 1336 students who were in their mid-twenties. Eventually, researchers used wave II data in their study who included 2070 males and 2218 females.
Why was the research performed? The research was performed to conduct an examination of the socio-ecological determinants of physical fighting in school among youths in immigrant families. As well, the study is designed to discuss the implications for practice.
Findings Findings from the study reveal that students who are likely to engage in physical fights are those who are males, are in lower grade levels, are from racial/ethnic minorities, and are of low socio-economic status. As well, the study reveals that other students likely to engage in fights are those who feel discriminated by their teachers, are detached from their families, those who speak different languages from their peers, and those who perceive school crimes as well as discipline to be unfair.
Strengths Researchers used publicly available data set, which made it possible to avoid ethical issues related to consent.
Weaknesses The cross-sectional and correlation designs used during the study only suggested associations instead of inferring causation.
Implications for Practice The authors explain that practitioners have to consider socio-cultural, environment, and individual characteristics to examine problems among immigrant youths.
Parent involvement training is necessary to prevent fights among youths.
Practitioners should incorporate cognitive-behavioral strategies to help minimize fights.
Citation Racko, G., Strauss, K., & Burchell, B. (2017). Economics Education and
Value Change: The Role of Program-Normative Homogeneity and Peer Influence. Academy of Management Learning & Education, Vol. 16, No. 3, 373392.
What is the article about? The article provides information about a 2-year longitudinal study of economics undergraduates from the Latvian branch of the leading European business schools, the Stockholm School of Economics (SSER), and economics students from Riga Technical University and University of Latvia. As the authors explain, all the schools have different economics curriculum. Participants of the survey included economics undergraduates from SSER and those from the two universities. Researchers conducted their survey at the beginning of the academic year and at the end of second year. They conducted the survey in the classroom. Students from SSER responded in English while those from the Latvian Universities responded in Latvia. Researchers utilized longitudinal data, which was available for 62.9% of Latvian students and 77% of SSER students. They measured values such as economic values such as power, hedonism, and self-direction suing the Schwartz Value Survey.
Why was the research performed? The research was performed to investigate value change in economics students from more or less normatively homogeneous economics programs. More so, the research examines the role of peer interaction in the interaction of economic values measured during the survey.
Findings Findings from the research reveal that in normatively homogeneous programs, peer influence plays a vital role to help students internalize economics values.
Strengths The longitudinal study design used in the study was advantageous because it incorporates observation and does not interfere with participants.
Weaknesses Researchers would have chosen one language, either English or Latvia to survey participants to prevent cultural differences.
Implications for Practice Business leaders and policy makers should utilize homogeneous programs to prevent the internalization of economic values by students.
Policy makers can prevent internalization of power values by facilitating interactions of students in diversified academic programs.
Citation Martell, C. C. (2016). Approaches to teaching race in elementary social studies: A case study of preservice teachers. The Journal of Social Studies Research, vol. 4, pp. 75-87.
What is the article about? The study examines the approaches to teaching race in social studies. Participants from the study were eight elementary teachers that included Walt Chandler, Karen Delacroix, Alex Delgado, Danielle Kowalski, Alexis Perry, Amelia Smith, Laura Walters, and Maria Zhang. All of the participants were form a large urban university in Northeast. The researcher incorporated multiple-case design in their study. As well, he collected data from a 1-year period using sixteen interviews, sixteen observations, classroom artifacts, and assignments from the social studies course that were completed by teachers.
Why was the research performed? The research was performed to examine the viewpoints and practices of preservice elementary teachers as they learned to provide race education in social studies.
Findings Findings from the study reveal that the teachers beliefs to teach about race in the elementary were unanimous. Nevertheless, when it came to practice, there was a division since some teachers believed that worked against racial prejudice (tolerance-oriented) while some believed that they worked against racial inequity (equity-oriented). As well, results revealed that teachers utilized three approaches such as avoiding, diminishing, and embracing when the subject of race arose. The researcher explains that equity-oriented teachers used embracing while tolerance oriented teachers used avoiding and diminishing. Another finding revealed that courses in elementary social studies, urban education, and student teaching experiences influenced beliefs about teaching race.
Strengths Individual teachers from elementary school were useful because they managed to vocalize their opinions regarding race in social studies.
Weaknesses The use of participants real names subjected them to criticism from various readers.
Implications for Practice Elementary teachers can use the study to learn to teach about race in social studies.
There is need for teaching about race in teacher preparation programs.
Citation Hayes, C., & Fasching-Varner, K. J. (2015). Racism 2 .0 and the Death of Social and Cultural Foundations of Education: A Critical Conversation. Educational Foundations.
What is the article about? The article dispenses two counter narratives, which highlight challenges that occur in teacher education in regards to race and the need for appealing to Socio-cultural Foundations (SCF). The authors explain that the counter narratives provide room to discuss race and the foundations of education. As well, the article offers suggestions concerning the way faculty members and leaders in teacher education can move forward to prevent the resistance to race and Socio-cultural Foundations (SFC).
Why was the research performed? The research was performed to provide analytical insights that serve as a means to comprehend the reason vital dialogues concerning race and Socio-cultural Foundations (SFC) are rarely discussed during teacher preparation programs.
Findings As the article depicts, the author finds a myriad of reasons critical conversations about race and SFC are unspoken. The first is when programs fail to acknowledge the demographics of surrounding communities where candidates participate in field placements. The second is when teacher education programs hire committees and faculty of color. The third is when faculty members and white students are offended by the curriculum. The fourth s when teacher meetings end without discussing the requirements of SFC. The fifth reason is when programs believe they are encouraging diversity by inviting white students to discuss their field trip to white dominated areas. The sixth reason is when white people question and criticize the efforts and awards white liberals receive for radicalizing other schools.
Strengths The authors of the article had good intentions when they discussed racisms and Socio-cultural Foundations that affect contemporary society.
Weaknesses The article only offers perspectives on teacher preparation, but fails to offer solutions regarding the problem of race and the exclusion of SCF.
Implications for Practice Teachers can manage to do away with racism by choosing to have Socio-cultural Foundations (SFC) and incorporating it into their teaching lifestyle.
Citation Ainsworth, J. W. (2002). Why does it take a Village? The Mediation of Neighborhood Effects on Educational Achievement. Social Forces, 81(1):117- 152.
What is the article about? The article is about the effects of neighborhood context on educational outcomes. Researchers used data from the National Education longitudinal Study of 1998, which matched with the 1990 Census data. The data from both surveys provided family background, school characteristics, educational outcomes, student measures, and neighborhood characteristics. The variables used in the study included control, mediating, and neighborhood variables.
Why was the research performed? The aim of the article is to examine the concentration of poverty in inner city neighborhoods and the educational failure of youth in those neighborhoods. It examines the issue by looking into the neighborhood characteristics that influence educational achievement and the mechanisms that mediate those associations.
Findings Results from the current study reveal that neighborhood characteristics predict educational outcomes. As well, the researcher finds that the strength of the prediction does not align with family and school related factors. The author affirms that the collective socialization process, which is the time spent on homework and higher educational expectations explains why neighborhood context affects educational outcomes.
Strengths The data set used in the article is credible because it was linked to the census information for the ZIP code where students lived during 1988-1992 to provide educational outcomes, student measures, neighborhood and school characteristics as well as family background.
Weaknesses The author states that the variables used in the study to mediate the relationship between neighborhood context and educational outcomes fail to correspond with theoretical constructs.
Implications for Practice The research advances educational literature connecting structural factors and individual level processes.
The research contributes to educational through ascertaining that neighborhood characteristics influence educational outcomes.
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