Globalization facilitated by continued escalation in levels of technology have bred online socialization and interconnectedness among the adolescents. The phenomena have resulted in the emergence of internet addiction to the extent that the majority may not function without it. Internet addiction experts have therefore conducted investigations resulting to different ideologies and conclusions as follows;
Al-Menayes, J. (2016). The fear of missing out scale: Validation of the Arabic version and correlation with social media addiction. International Journal of Applied Psychology, 6(2), 41-46.
Professor Al-Menayes, an expert of mass communication at the University of Kuwait, conducted an investigation focused on the interpretation of the fear of missing out (FOMO). He defined FOMO as the pervasive anxiety that other individuals may be enjoying certain advantageous experiences that are not at the disposal of others. Therefore, FOMO was centralized with the idea of being aware of what others are doing.
Al-Menayes used a population of 395 males (29.8% of the enrolment) and 931 females (70.2%). In the measurement, both fear of missing out scale and social media addiction scale was used (SMAS).FOMO scale revealed to exhibit two factors portraying good internal consistency. Based on correlating FOMO and social media addiction scale, analysis of the concurrent validity indicated a significant result justifying its potential in the application of further researches.
Studies by Al-Menayes was based on the interpretation of items from English and which was utilized in the identification of the findings. Despite the positive results, it failed to reflect on the ways of dealing with the fear of missing out. For this reason, therefore, further research needs to emphasize on the testing of the reliability and validity of the investigations to determine its strengths and weaknesses with a motive of enhancing the refinement of the findings.
Brand, M., Laier, C., & Young, K. S. (2014). Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications. Frontiers in psychology, 5.
Brand, Laier, and Young are experts in psychology and internet addiction disorders. In their research, they assert that Internet addiction (IA) has emerged to be a serious mental health challenge in many nations as a result of the advent of technology. They emphasized on the statistical theoretical model highlighting the cognitive mechanism and the means of disorder maintenance. In achieving this, the author differentiates generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and other existing forms. The study model conducted by GIA, about a population of internet users.
From a population of 1019 users, indicated that the initially hypothesized structural equation model revealed 65% of GIA symptoms as determined by the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). When the authors applied personality, and psychological testing, personal cognitions such as cognitive expectations and poor coping conditions escalated the vulnerability of GIA.
Other risk factors that could be possibly mediated by the highlighted person specific conditions included social anxiety, low self-efficacy, depression and high stress among others. They concluded that persons having higher coping skills and lacking expectations might be used in increasing the positive or reducing the negative moods hence are less vulnerable to internet addiction regardless of the availability of personality and psychological influencers.
The study presented by the authors explains the internet addiction, highlights the possible person specific psychological symptoms but fails to identify treatment procedures. Even though this is the case, it is relevant and meets the validity credentials. It is, therefore, suitable for further research and refinement.
Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). Social networking sites and addiction: Ten lessons learned. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(3), 311.
According to Kuss and Griffith, professionals of the International Gaming Research Unit at the University of Nottingham Trent, they hold that social networking sites (SNSs) have been on the rise in the previous decade with a motive of interconnecting and linking to others with similar interest. The condition results in the compulsive application of SNSs resulting in symptoms and ultimate consequences linked to substance abuse. The article, therefore, presents lessons learned from an empirical study illuminating on the internet addiction. First is that there is a disparity between social media use and social networking. Secondly, social networking is eclectic that is; it includes a variety of applications such as Facebook, Instagram, twitter, etc. and which keeps on changing with time. Third is that social networking is a way of being, as it defines our behavior and relationships. Fourth and a core aspect are that social media is more addictive.
Fifth, there are many types of addiction, and Facebook is just one. The sixth is that fear of missing out is part of SNS addiction. Seventh, smartphone addiction is part of the SNS. Eighth, Nomophobia, that is, a condition where one cannot survive without a mobile phone is an example of SNS. Ninth is that there are sociodemographic disparities in SNS and finally research conducted about SNS highlights a controversy and debate.
The article recommends that FOMO assessment and nomophobia SNS screening addiction tools are related to SNS addiction. Also, that, SNSs analyzed across technologies. Furthermore, clinical samples are to be included for sensitivity screening, and the treatment goal should be controlling rather than abstinence.
The research is competent but has a weakness in the sense that, it talks about prevention but fails to provide the appropriate prevention methodologies. The article is relevant, and further research is important to bridge the gaps related to prevention and treatment procedures.
Andreassen, C. S. (2015). Online social network site addiction: A comprehensive review. Current Addiction Reports, 2(2), 175-184.
Andreassen, a professor at the University of Bergen, highlights that compulsive and excessive use of the social networking platforms has increased over the last decade. The young have become more addicted to accessing the online sites hence the compulsive nature. According to Andreassen Schou, there are similarities between SNSs addiction and other drug-related addiction including tolerance, salience, mood adjustments, relapse, conflict, withdrawal, etc.
She highlights that, some screening devices have been developed capable of identifying SNS addicts and which applies different methodologies in the identification process. They disclose the practical and conceptual obscurity in the area of study. Similarly, the empirical and theoretical models outline that the SNS addiction is bred by aspects such as sociocultural, behavioral and dispositional reinforcements. Importantly, she denotes that, SNS addiction is connected to impaired health and problems of the wellness.
Besides identification of the symptoms, Andreassen failed to highlight the treatment and prevention procedures providing a gap for further research. The article is valid and highlights all the possible concepts related to SNS addiction.
Notably, Andreassen highlights strategies including self-help therapies, counseling and other differentiated therapy procedures relevant to the distinctive internet addiction procedures hence of critical significance to further research. Furthermore, the arguments placed by Schou are observable, undergone tests and formed the basis of many research due to streamlined gaps provided.
Young, K. S. (2013). Treatment outcomes using CBT-IA with Internet-addicted patients. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 2(4), 209-215.
Kimberly Young, a doctor, psychologist and a professional of internet addiction in this article holds that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the advanced and most profound treatment process that not only identifies the symptom but also provides the means of eradicating them. She claims that internet gaming is a subtype of internet addiction and CBT is the most suitable approach applied in its treatment.
In his investigation, 128 clients are used and outcomes measured by use of CBT-IA. The classification was done and post-treatment analysis conducted at the end of 6 months. Results reveal that 95% of the tested clients managed the symptoms in 12 weeks and 78% recovered after 6 months. Notably, Young focused and majored his efforts on the subjective view subjected to the treatment of the internet addiction. In achievement of the task, the applied cognitive behavioral therapy was complex and utilized all the possible means of approaching the treatment aspect revealing positive results.
In conclusion, Young highlighted that the CBT-IA is a more comprehensive and promising approach that entails behavior modification to reduce acts of compulsive internet use, modification of cognitive distortions and techniques to reduce harm.
Even though young reports a more satisfying investigation, he does not point out the possibility of using medical treatment as a compliment or in place of CBT. The investigation is satisfying and having minor critiques, it is, therefore, relevant, valid and provides an opportunity for further research.
Przepiorka, A. M., Blachnio, A., Miziak, B., & Czuczwar, S. J. (2014). Clinical approaches to treatment of Internet addiction. Pharmacological Reports, 66(2), 187-191.Przepiorka, Blachnio, Miziak, and Czuczwar, are psychological and medical experts, specialized and experienced in matters relating to internet addiction. They assert that the introduction of Internet recorded to be one of the major technological breakthroughs to humanity resulting in lots of undeniable gains but at the same time resulted in negative consequences. It is the cause of emerging and trending cases of Internet addiction.
In the investigation process, the authors emphasize the effectiveness of the treatment procedures and settle on the pharmacologic and cognitive treatments.
The authors findings and reveals that, individual approach to the treatment of the Internet addiction disorder is the most effective. They assert that the best drugs to be considered for management purpose include; opioid receptor antagonists, antidepressants, glutamate receptor antagonists and psychostimulants. For the treatment purposes, other drugs may include; valproate and anti-epileptics.
The authors, therefore, as a result of competency and experience concludes that effective therapy is best achieved through individual approach. Furthermore, best results may be achieved through pharmacological and psychological treatments.
Even though the competence of the authors about the subject is outstanding, making them provide both the pharmacological and cognitive treatments, they fail to specify the exact internet addiction disorder which is to be managed by the highlighted measures. Furthermore, the mode of administration and the time for conducting post-treatment is not highlighted by the authors.
Regardless of the criticism, the research done by the authors is relevant and valid since it focuses on the investigation of the specified population sample. It, therefore, provide gaps for future research hence meets the reliability credentials.
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